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[Source:,%20Saxony.htm ]

The Questenbergers have a mean cephalic index of 82.4, which is low for eastern Germany, and the head size is intermediate between that of the South Germans and of those in the northwest. Compared to the southern Germans, these Saxons are very light in skin, hair, and eye color; the predominant hair color is a medium brown while the eyes are mostly pure light or light-mixed, and dark eyes are limited to about 5 per cent. The noses of the Questenbergers are as a rule high and narrow, and frequently convex. These Saxons fall as a group into the Noric racial type; brunet Dinarics are rather uncommon here, as are morphologically typical Alpines. It seems most reasonable to regard these people as the descendants of Iron Age Nordics who have been partially brachycephalized by Alpine and Dinaric admixture ...

To summarize the data on the physical anthropology of Germany it seems necessary to stress the relative absence of conventional Nordics comparable to those found in eastern Norway, in Sweden, and in England. Such Nordics may be seen almost everywhere in Germany as individuals, but nowhere as a large element in the population. The Northwest Germans represent for the most part a reëmergence of Brünn and Borreby types which have absorbed the Iron Age Nordic group almost completely, as well as the old North German Corded concentration. The southwestern Germans are the most nearly Nordic of all, but have strong Brünn and Borreby accretions. The southern Germans, from southern Baden to eastern Bavaria, are basically Alpine, with strong, often predominant, Dinaric tendencies, and a large purely brunet minority. In central Germany an intermediate condition between the North German and the South German extremes is found. In southeastern Germany, from Saxony to Silesia, while the head form is extremely brachycephalic, the pigmentation is usually light, and the head size small in comparison with the northern and western parts of the country. The racial type which is most characteristic here is the Noric, a blond Dinaric form resulting from a brachycephalization of Iron Age Nordics through direct or indirect Alpine admixture. In Silesia, to the same elements may be added a broad-faced, snub-nosed, brachycephalic strain which we have already observed among Finns and Balts, and which will be studied in further detail in Poland and Russia. The northeastern Germans are for the most part blond brachycephals, varying in type from Borreby to East Baltic, and especially the latter.

The province of Saxony was created in 1816 and was one of the richest regions of Prussia.

Upper Lusatia (Oberlausitz) belongs to Saxony; it consists of hilly countryside rising to the Lausitzer Bergland (Lusatian hills) near the Czech border, which rises even higher to form the Lusatian Mountains (Lužické hory/Lausitzer Gebirge) in the Czech Republic.

Upper Lusatia is characterised by fertile soil and soft hills, as well as historic towns and cities such as Bautzen, Görlitz, Zittau, Löbau, Kamenz, Lubań, Bischofswerda, Hoyerswerda, Bad Muskau. A few big villages in the very south of the Upper Lusatia are a typical attraction of the region, the so-called Umgebindehäuser, half-timbered-houses as a mixture between Franconian and Slavic style. Among those villages are Wehrsdorf, Jonsdorf, Sohland an der Spree, Taubenheim, Oppach, Varnsdorf or Ebersbach.

Most of the portion belonging to Brandenburg is called Lower Lusatia (Niederlausitz), and is characterised by forests and meadows. In the course of much of the 19th and the entire 20th century, it was shaped by lignite industry and extensive open-cast mining. Important towns include Cottbus, Lübben, Lübbenau, Spremberg, Finsterwalde, Senftenberg.

Between the Upper and Lower Lusatia is a region called Grenzwall meaning something like "border-wall". This region has been damaged by the coal-industry with small and big villages destroyed. The former open-cast mines are being regenerated by creating artificial lakes under the name of Lausitzer Seenland.

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The Austro-Prussian war was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire (who declared the war) and its German allies against the Kingdom of Prussia and its German allies plus Italy. Most of the German states had sided with Austria against Prussia. Those that sided with the Austria Empire included the Kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg, and Hanover.
The main campaign of the war occurred in Bohemia where the Prussians had planned meticulously for the war. A mobilized Prussian army advanced across the border into Saxony and Bohemia, where the Austrian army was concentrating for an invasion of Silesia. The Prussian victory was near total, and it resulted in Prussian dominance over the German states. Except for Saxony, the other German states allied to Austria played little role in this main campaign.
In 1867, Saxony joined the North German Federation. In 1871 it became part of the German Empire.


"Description: A map of Germany in 1872, showing the extent of Prussia, the German states which joined Prussia to make the German Empire, and Alsace and Lorraine territories taken from France in 1871 ..."


Where Rothenburg, Steinbach and Lodenau were previously in Silesia - for example in 1871 -  apparently here - in 1872 as later for certain -  they are now in Saxony



Please Note that Rosswein [Roßwein] is west of Dresden; That Bischofswerda is north-east of Dresden; That Rothenburg and Lodenau are north-east of Bishofswerda

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Dessau - 1910 - [North of Leipzig and in Saxony-Anhault]

historical/baedeker_n_germany_1910/dessau_1910.jpg ]


Dresden - 1910

/baedeker_n_germany_1910/dresden_1910.jpg ]


About 94% of the inhabitants of Saxony are Protestants; about 12,500 are Jews, and about 4.7%, including the royal family, are Roman Catholics. The Evangelical-Lutheran, or State, church has as its head the minister de evangelicis so long as the king is Roman Catholic; and its management is vested in the Evangelical Consistory at Dresden. Its representative assembly consisting of 35 clergymen and 42 laymen is called a synod (Synode). The Reformed Church has consistories in Dresden and Leipzig. The Roman Catholic Church has enjoyed the patronage of the reigning family since 1697, though it was only the peace of Posen in 1806 which placed it on a level with the Lutherans. By the peace of Prague, which transferred Upper Lusatia to Saxony in 1635, stipulations were made in favour of the Roman Catholics of that region, who are ecclesiastically in the jurisdiction of the cathedral chapter of St Peter at Bautzen, the dean of which has ex-officio a seat in the first chamber' of the diet. The other districts are managed by an apostolic vicar at Dresden, under the direction of the minister of public worship. Two nunneries in Lusatia are the only conventual establishments in Saxony, and no others may be founded. Among the smaller religious sects the Moravian Brethren, whose chief seat is at Herrnhut, are perhaps the most interesting. In 1868 civil rights were declared to be independent of religious confession.,_Germany


[Source: ]

21st Century




Lodenau/Rothenburg/Bischofswerda/Dresden - Germany

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