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An Event Chronology Based on Louisbourg Accounts Not Available in the Archives of the Fortress of Louisbourg, By Eric Krause, Krause House Info-Research Solutions, 2004 - Present
... When I first arrived, I made known to these Micmac, His gracious Majesty's intentions of cultivating Amity and Friendship with them, exhorting them to assemble their Tribes, that I would treat with them, and deliver the presents the King my Master had sent them, they seemed well inclined, some keeping amongst us trafficking and well pleased; no sooner was the evacuation of Louisbourg made and De Lutre the French Missionary sent among them, they vanished and have not been with us since ... [Source?: Cornwallis, 1749 memorandum to the Lords of Trade
To the Hon. Spencer Phips, Esq., Lieutenant Governor and commander in Chief, in and over His Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, and to the Honorable the Council, and House of Representatives in General Court assembled, January, A. D. 1749.
The petition of us the subscribers humbly sheweth, That whereas, we were in the expedition against Louisbourg and the settlement adjacent, then under the [page 420] command of the French King, being in said service, not only until but for some considerable time after the reduction thereof, to the obedience of the King of Great Britain, and some of us detained there for the defense of Louisbourg until relieved by his Majesty's troops from Gibraltar, being about sixteen months from the time of entrance into said service; to our arrival at our respective homes, the fatigue of which service, your Excellency and Honours are well knowing to, and our wages but low while in said service. and as many of us were put out of our usual way of business, it terminated very detrimental to us, and as many of us have no lands for settlement nor wherewith to purchase any, Therefore we pray- your honours to grant us a township of the contents of six miles square, of some of the unappropriated lands of said province, somewhere in the county of York, to be settled by your petitioners in such time and under such restrictions as your Excellency and Honours, in your known wisdom, shall see meet to enjoin us, and as your petitioners in duty bound will ever pray.
Moses Pearson, George Knight, Isaac Ilsley, Jacob Clefford, James Springer, Jeremiah Springer, Jeremiah Springer, Jr., Gamaliel Pote, Nathaniel Ingersoll, Samuel Graves, Ebenezer Gustin, James Gilkey, David Dowty, Benjamin Sweetser, Jeremiah Pote, Samuel Clark, Thomas Bracken, Elisha Pote, Samuel Lunt, Jr., Job Lunt, Samuel Hodgskins, John Clark, John Anderson, Moses Hodgskins, Joshua Brackett, Phillip Hodgskins, John Fowle, John Robison, Richard Temple, Stephen Clark, John Clark, Jacob True, Josiah Huniwel, Samuel Lowell, John Owen, Jr., Jacob Graffam, Joshua Moody, John Irish, William Reed, Abraham Sawyer, John Roberts, Penivel Berton, George Williams, William Pitman John Ayer, Samuel Atwood.
[Source: http://www.usigs.org/library/books/me/Portland1865/Portland016.htm - William Willis, The History of Portland, from 1632 to 1864: With a Notice of Previous Settlements Colonial Grants and Changes of Government in Maine. Second Edition, Portland: Bailey & Noyes, Scanned, OCRed and HTML editing by David Blackwell 2001 for the Free NE Books Online Effort, NEHGS, the Maine Historical Society, and USIGS Library, Chapter XVI]
From the Westminster Journal, March 18, 1748-9.
The following letter will, I hope, be thought very seasonable at this time, when the government has assured us, that it actually intends to establish a colony in Nova Scotia ...
... Now by the treaty of Utrecht, the whole province of Acadia, or Nova-Scotia, in the full extent of it, was absolutely ceded to this nation. This distinction of the full extent is more necessary than may at first be apprehended: For it authorises us to take in all that the French before comprehended under the name of L'Acadie, which is, the whole tract of land enclosed by the Atlantic ocean, the gulph of St. Laurence, the Lady Mountains the coast actually settled by the French, on St. Laurence's or Canada river, and our own Province of New England. ** This is plain from all the maps and descriptions published by the French while that country was legally theirs; tho' they have artfully endeavoured, in later geographical works, to confine the name of Acadie to little more than the eastern peninsula of that country, and to extend that of Gaspesie over the rest, which is more than four-fifths of the whole.
Nova Scotia, according to this just and full acceptation of it, gives us a right to all the western coast of St. Laurence's Bay, from the back of cape breton, almost to the mouth of Canada river. And as the whole island of Newfoundland, by the same treaty, belongs to us, the French seem, in truth, to have no seacoast left them in those parts, except that of cape breton, their other islands in the gulph, and the long coast of the Eshimaux on the north of the same gulph, from the straits of Belleisle, to the mouth of their great river.*** But whoever looks into a map of this part of the world, as I have with grief of heart often done within some few months past, cannot but see how cape breton, alone, lies in the center betwixt our several coasts, and the banks of Newfoundland and Acadia. ...
But I would avoid pressing too hard on so very tender a part, and my purpose is rather to furnish hints for the future, than reflections on what is past. IT is just to acknowledge, that some persons in New England did not at first approve of the expedition against cape breton, as believing we should not be able to keep it at a peace: ...
[April 5, 1749]
Custom House, Philadelphia, ....
... Sloop Ann, Jonathan Hart, for cape breton. ...
April 20, 1749
Custom House, Philadelphia, ...
Sloop Anna, Jonathan Hart, to cape breton. ...
Extract of a letter from London, dated April 24, 1749.
"The scheme for settling and fortifying Nova Scotia, is now carrying on with great spirit; near 4000 having inlisted themselves for that purpose, and they are daily embarking on board the transports hired to carry them for that colony. Col. Cornwallis is appointed governor of this new settlement, and to command the troops that may be thought necessary to protect the infant colony. He is a very worthy, good natured man, and is reckoned by every one a fit person for such an employment. Your bill for annihilating the paper currency has been several times under consideration of the house of commons, but from the opposition it has met with from the agents of most of the neighbouring governments, the salutary intentions of your legislature, will, I am afraid, be frustrated, at least they will not take effect so soon as could be wished, the considerations thereof in the house of commons having been put off last Saturday to a distant day, from whence we conclude, nothing will be done in it this session of parliament: This, 'tis believed will retard the payment of the money granted you for reducing Louisbourg. Our ministry does not seem inclined to make any provision this year for the expence of the Canada expedition, so that the bill remitted on that account, must remain some time longer." ...
Friday last major Gilman arrived here from England, by whom we are informed, that he came passenger with capt. Foster of Charlestown, bound to Annapolis Royal, with upwards of one hundred recruits for Phillis's regiment, but meeting with a fishing schooner belonging to Marblehead, in the bay of Fundy, the major went on board her, and capt. Foster proceeded for Annapolis. Governor Cornwallis sail'd from Spithead 2 or 3 days before capt. Foster, in 1 20 gun ship, capt. Lloyd commander, bound to Annapolis, and was spoke with by capt. Foster about ten days ago on the banks of Newfoundland. When capt Foster left Spithead, which was the 13th of May, the fleet for Chebucta was under sail, and consisted of 15 very large ships, with about 2000 men on board, besides women and children, under convoy of a sloop of war, commanded by capt. John Rous. 'Tis now but six weeks and two days since major Gilman left England.
Boston, April 24.
Saturday last arrived here Capt. Stevens, in about 3 weeks from Louisbourgh; in whom came 17 families, belonging to the two regiments there, being about 50 or 60 men, women and children.
By Capt. Nealson,
arrived at York from Bristol, there are
the following advices.
LONDON, April 25 ....
Orders are likewise issued for parcelling out land to such inhabitants of New England as were concerned in the expedition against cape breton, as are willing to accept thereof. ...
[27th of April, 1749]
From the BARBADOS
Remember the WAR, PEACE, and FIRE WORKS.
Be it remember'd in the annals of posterity, and to the eternal honour of the British nation, that in the year if our lord 1739, and in the twelfth year of the auspicious reign of GEORGE II. a war was enter'd into with Spain, for the non payment of Ninety Thousand Pounds, due to the South sea company, and to secure a free navigation without search (or cutting peoples ears off) to the West Indies. Which declaration of war soon involv'd England in another against France; who, contrary to treaty, had open'd and fortified the harbour of Dunkirk. Be it then, I say, remember'd, That Great Britain, after a vast profusion of blood, and running in debt full Thirty Millions, when it had reduced the royal fleets of France and Spain to so wretched a condition, that they durst not appear at sea, and had by the brave New Englandmen, taken the important isle of cape breton; did, by that ever memorable peace, concluded at Aix la Chapelle, 1749, not only generously restore cape breton to the crown of France, send two of her prime nobility thither as hostages, leave Dunkirk in part still fortified; but also expend, in a firework, a sum little inferior to the original demand upon Spain, and concluded a most gracious and honourable peace with that nation; leaving the grand affair of the search, and barbarities us'd towards her gallant sailors, just where she found them. Thus ended this long, bloody, and taxing war; which was open'd with bonfires at home, carried on with potguns in the field, and ended with the loud roar of cannon in the Green Park, the 27th of April, 1749.
New York, May. 1.
We just now hear, that the snow Irene, Capt. Garrison, is arrived at Sandy Hook, from London, with upwards of 100 passengers on board, of the Moravian brethern. Friday last arrived here Capt. Barnes in 10 days from cape breton; in whom is come upwards of 80 persons, men, women, and children, late belonging to the two American regiments posted there, which regiments are broke, and all the men discharged. They are daily shipping off for these parts, and the people remaining were every moment in expectation of orders for the entire evacuation of that place.
Pennsylvania Gazette (Fair Use © Accessible Gazette Inc.)
Boston, May 8.
By Capt. Fones we
have advice, That the act lately passed by this government for calling in and
sinking all our paper currency, was received in London, and that Sir Peter
Warren, knight of the Bath, one of the gentlemen impowered by the said act to
receive and give a discharge for the money granted by parliament for reimbursing
to this province their expences in taking and securing cape breton, had accepted
of that trust.
We hear that 9000 persons are enlisted for the settlement of Nova Scotia, and almost ready to sail: That the king has given 50,000 £. sterling towards the charges: And that Otis Little, Esq; author of the state of trade, &c. in North America, is appointed Surveyor-general of Nova Scotia.
BY the votes of the house of Commons of the 15th of March last, we find, that Eliakim Palmer, Esq; agent for Connecticut, and Richard Partridge, Esq; agent for Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, had petitioned the house against the Bill then depending, To regulate and restrain paper bills of Credit in the British colonies and plantations in America, and to prevent the same being legal tenders in payments for money; and for the better enforcing his majesty's orders and instructions throughout the said colonies and plantations. Upon which petitions the house passed the following orders, "That the said petitions do lie upon the table until the said bill be read a second time; and that the petitioners be then heard by their counsel against the said bill, if they think fit. That the said bill be read a second time, upon Tuesday, the 11th day of April next."
[May 11, 1749]
Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred Inwards....
------ Louisburgh, Hugh Wright, from Cadiz. ...
of a letter from an agent of one of the colonies concern'd in
the cape breton expedition, dated London, May 19.
"The Massachusetts agent has not yet received the cape breton money, but I suppose Sir Peter Warren and William Bollen, Esq; will now have it shortly. ...
New York, May 29.
By the Jamaica papers we learn, that the council and assembly of that island have agreed, that an humble address be presented to his majesty, setting forth the distresses of the island, arising from the additional duty on sugar, the duty on melasses, spirits, the paucity of their white inhabitants, and the danger they are exposed to for want of sufficient force to defend the country, hoping relief therein.
Saturday last arrived here the sloop Morning star, Capt. Holmes, from cape breton, with upwards of 80 persons, men, women, and children, late belonging to the two American Regiments posted there.
Boston, June 1.
Last Tuesday evening arrived at Nantasket, his majesty's ship Vulcan, Capt. Smelt, from Portsmouth in England, but last from Louisburg, as a packet; by which we learn, that the encouragement given to carry on the settlement of Nova Scotia, extends to the two American regiments, and to that purpose governor Hobson had received orders to retain such of the said troops as are not disbanded at Louisbourg, till the arrival of the transports from England, and with them to proceed to Nova Scotia, in order to settle there, if they see cause.
Boston, June 12.
Yesterday arrived two vessels from Louisbourg, in one of which, came several officers of col. Shirley's regiment. We hear some of the French transports are come to Cape Breton, but none of the people, 'tis said, will be permitted to go on shore, until the French governor's arrival. A ship is also arrived from Newfoundland, which came from England with supplied of bread,&c. for the garrisons.
Boston, July 13.
....He also says, that there are none Cape Cod Indians at Canada, five of which were taken at Annapolis Royal, who were under the command of Col. Gorham, in the year 1745; some of them are sold as slaves to the Indians; that they are very desirous of being redeemed. --- There is also a boy who was taken from Rochester in New Hampshire, with the Indians at St. Francois, his name is Jonathan Dore: There is also a girl with the Nuns at Montreal, who is daughter to the Widow Foster, taken at or near Casco bay; her other child died at St. Francois this spring: There are also two young women in Canada who are sisters, that were taken in their passage from Edinburgh to New England, who say they have a kinsman in Boston named John Bell, their names are Thompson, and are servants to the French; they very much fear they shall tarry ever in that country, except they are shortly redeemed.
Mr. Brown further relates, that there is a government settling at or near Crown Point; that since he went to Montreal, they had erected near 30 small French houses on both sides of the lake, and that near 30 families were got there since: He was inform'd that the king allowed them three years provisions, every man a horse and a cow, all husbandry utensils, 150 livres in cash, and their lands free from rent for 12 years.
By several vessels arrived here since our last from Louisburg and Chebucta, we have letters informing, that two French men of war of 80 guns each, and 20 transports, with a governor and troops to garrison the former place, were arrived there from France, and that the French governor had offer'd governor Hobson to transport his garrison to Chebucta, which he accepted of, and orders are come to discharge the vessels taken up here for that purpose. --- That on the 21st of June, Col. Cornwallis, governor of Nova Scotia, arrived at Chebucta, in his majesty's ship Spynx, at which place were also arrived Capt. Rous, in a Sloop of war, and 15 transports, with 2000 settlers on board, as also provisions, arms and ammunition, with all sorts of utensils for fortifying, building, and clearing of land, &c. and that the first and principal settlement will be at or near Chebucta. --- That governor Cornwallis intends to keep the transport ships at Chebucta till next year, for the convenience of the people, especially the women and children, till they have built houses for their reception on shore; and that the same encouragement that has been given to the British troops lately disbanded, is also given to those of governor Shirley's and Sir William Pepperell's regiment, that shall engage in the settlement.
We also hear, that the French arrived at Louisbourg, lost a great number of men on their passage, by the small-pox, yellow fever, &c. and that our people arrived at Chebucta, lost only one child in their voyage from England.
We likewise hear, that French rum and melasses were so plenty at Louisburg, that rum was sold for nine pence per gallon, and melasses exceeding cheap.
Boston, June 19.
We hear that the French are building a fort at St. John's, within the limits of Nova-Scotia, under the protection of three vessels of force, which if true, is a fine spot of work at this time, when we are talking of a strong settlement in that province.
WE learn that the new governor of Canada, has lately wrote a very haughty and insolent letter to the governor of Nova-Scotia, and our governor, in which the monsieur claims the bigger part of Nova-Scotia, and part of this province, blaming the governor of Nova-Scotia for exacting any authority over the French inhabitants and Indians in that province; also insisting on Col. Gotham's being hindred from using any means by force or otherwise to draw said inhabitants from their allegiance to the king of France, and laying many complaints against Mons. Gorham: We also learn the aforesaid inhabitants were rejoyced to hear peace lately proclaimed there, but were chagrin'd to hear the English were going to settle in said province, which they have been made to believe all along by the French, that this province was to be given up as well as Louisbourg. The scooner Anson sailed for Annapolis last Monday, on board of which was Col. Gorham.
Boston, July 24.
All our accounts from the West Indies agree, that provisions are exceeding plenty and cheap at all the islands: A vessel lately come in from St. Kitts, brought near an hundred barrels of flour to this port. By letters from Louisbourg, dated the 7th instant, we are informed, that the British soldiers in garrison there, were busy in preparing to leave the place, and expected to embark on board the French transports in three or four days time ...
The same day Capt. Foster arrived here in ten days from Chebucta, by whom we are informed, that the people there are plentifully supply'd with fresh provisions by the French inhabitants, and that they go on briskly in clearing the land, and preparing of frames for houses. ---That gov. Mascarene and other gentlemen from Annapolis were arrived at Chebucta, and that Capt. Rous in the Albany, and Capt. Pearse in the Boston, were going to St. John's, to disturb the French in the settlement they are making there.
July 28, 1749
Copy of a Letter from one of the Sett'ers in Nova Scotia, dated Chebucto Harbour, July 28, 1749
... On our arrival, we found the Sphinx, of 20 guns, which had come into harbour a few days before us, having his excellency Col. Cornwallis, our governor, on board; who being informed of the arrival of the French at Louisbourg, immediately gave orders for transporting the English garrison from Cape Breton to this place: and while I am writing, I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that the transports are now entering the harbour, with the 2 regiments of Hopson and Warburton on board. The assistance, as well as the security, which we shall receive from these regiments, will greatly forward our settlement; the officers having brought all their furniture with them, and a great number of milch cows, and other stock, besides military stores, and ammunition of all sorts ...
[Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 19, September, 1749, Page 408 [Source: http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/ilej/journals/ ]
Boston, August 7.
Friday last his majesty's ship Boston, Capt. Pearse, arrived here from Nova Scotia, and by her we have advice, that she, with the Albany, Capt. Rous, had been at St. John's, where 'twas reported the French were building a fort, and making a settlement; but upon their arrival there, found the report was without foundation, there being no number of French to be seen, or any beginning of a fortification. They heard, however, that the French had a fort about 30 or 4o leagues further up the river (where vessels of burthen cannot go) which they pretend is within their own territory, and which they have built for the security of their frontiers.
The same day a barn in Charlestown took fire, and was soon consumed to ashes. 'Tis not certainly known by what means the fire was kindled; but 'tis remarkable, that three fires should happen in one particular part of the town, within a very short time; and there seems some reason to question, whether all, if any of 'em, were purely accidental.
We hear from Chebucta, that they go on in clearing of land, and doing everything
necessary to forward the settlement of Nova Scotia, which goes on as well as can
be wish'd: And that his excellency governor Cornwallis hath appointed a new
council to assist in the civil government of that province, most of the former
council, usually residing in Annapolis Royal, being left out, by reason of the
distance of that place from Chebucta, which is to be the metropolis. And that
Col. Gorham was appointed the first of the new council.
We likewise hear, that the French has possession of the fortress of Louisbourg on Saturday the 8th of last month, and that the English people were embarking on board the French transports, and were to sail from thence for Chebucta the Monday after.
Boston, August 14.
... Saturday last we had a vessel in from Chebucta (now call'd Halifax) by which there is advice, that the famous city of Louisbourgh was delivered up to the French on the 12th of July past, who have now a garrison of about 600 regular troops in it; and, that the British troops lately in garrison there, were all arrived safe at Chebucta. (May the 12th of July, that black day, be forever hereafter left out of our New England Callenders; but let the 17th of June (the day on which Louisburgh surrender'd to our gallant countrymen) be had in everlasting remembrance.) ...
Chebucta, (in Nova Scotia) August 23, 1749.
"Fifteen of the chiefs of the St. John"s Indians were here not long since, and ratified the peace made at Annapolis before the French war, and are gone home in the Anson Galley, and seem to be peaceable and easy. The Mickmucks, or Cape Sable Indians, have been here daily in great numbers, trading in a friendly manner with us, till four days past, at the head of this river, they insulted a boat with some of our people, by rushing to them with a great body, as soon as the boat struck the shore, and took two of the arms, and fired them off, then took the oars, and ran into the woods; but the corporal who commanded the boat, being a resolute man, he pursued them, and wrested both the arms and oars from them, and returned: Upon this the Indians all drew off, which we since understand they were ordered to do by their priest, with some other remote tribes, to a place of rendezvous, which we imagine is to consult some means to annoy us and the settlers here, being instigated by the French inhabitants, who since the discovery of his majesty's instructions to them, I believe will take all methods to prevent a British government here, they being obliged to swear full allegiance to his Britannick majesty, form themselves into a regular militia, and give assistance in arms whenever called, or move off, without liberty to sell, or even to do the least damage to their lands or houses, which they are to give a peremptory answer to in three months: They have therefore sent dispatches to the governors of Canada and Louisburg for advice, and it is generally thought many will quit, which will leave fine possessions for good loyal subjects.
Capt. Joseph Gorham, in a well armed sloop, is ordered by the governor to cruize along the shore as far as the Bay Vert, to distribute his excellency's proclamation to all the harbours inhabited, with power to seize all vessels that shall be found carrying provisions from this province to other colonies, especially to Louisbourg, and to make what discoveries he can of the designs of the inhabitants and Indians. It is thought he will cruize as far as Louisbourg, there being several shallops from thence at Canso cutting of hay, and it is not doubted he will soon give a good account of them.
There are five picket forts building on the back of the town of Hallifax, which will be garrisoned with Warburton's regiment, and Col. Corham's company, for the security of the settlers,- --Governor Hobson with his regiment, (in five ships) sailed for England the 19th instant.
Boston, September 18.
... By a vessel just arrived from Nova Scotia, we hear, that the governor of Louisbourg, being informed that governor Cornwallis had sent out some armed vessels to seize all sloops and other vessels that should be found trading or going to trade to Cape Breton, had sent out a fine 24 gun man of war, (which was soon to be followed by another of the same rate) with orders to take, burn or destroy all English vessels that should be met with beyond the line, except such as were going to Louisbourg to trade.
We hear likewise, that they had a report at Chebucta, that the Indians had killed 2 of Col. Gorham's men, that the col. was gone out in quest of them, and that an armed vessel was sent into the Bason to intercept them, if they should attempt to cross the water.
On Monday last his excellency our governor embarked on board the Boston man of war, and sailed for great Britain.
Pennsylvania Gazette (Fair Use © Accessible Gazette Inc.)
Boston, September 25.
Last Monday arrived here his majesty's ship Mermaid, Capt. Montague commander, in about 5 weeks from Portsmouth, in which came William Bollan, Esq; late agent for this province at the court of Great Britain, who has brought with him (in Spanish dollars and copper) the greatest part of the money granted by parliament for reimbursing the province the charge of the cape breton expedition; and last Friday and Saturday the money was landed on the long wharff, and afterwards carried to Mr. treasurer Foye's, where it was decently interred in a vault prepared in the cellar for its reception, but when the time of its resurge will be, time only will discover; probably not so soon as some people may imagine. Few tokens of joy were shewn on its landing; but on the contrary, an uncommon gloominess appeared in most countenances. The sum arrived, as we are told, is about 175,000 £. sterling, and the sum granted by the parliament was 183,649 £. 2s. 7d. halfpenny.
[September 28, 1749]
Custom House, Philadelphia, Entered ...
Brigt. Louisbourgh, Hugh Wright, to Cadiz. ...
Boston, October 2.
By several vessels arrived from Nova Scotia since our last, we have advice from Annapolis-Royal, that Capt. Donnel in a trading sloop, being at Chenecto, at the head of the bay of Fundy, 8 Indians came on board in a seeming friendly manner to trade with him, but had not been long there, before they fell upon the people (some upon the deck, and the rest in the cabbin) with their knives, and barbarously kill'd three of them; but the Captain and one or two more who were in the cabbin, taking to their arms, kill'd seven of the rogues, the other made his escape. a great number of Indians were on shore, waiting the event of this enterprize, expected to have made prize of the vessel and cargo, but were happily prevented by the bravery of the Captain, and the few men he had with him. 'Tis said the Captain is much wounded in the head.
And from Halifax, formerly called Chebucta, that Capt. Joseph Gorham, who we inform'd in a former paper was sail'd on a cruize, return'd on the 19th of September past, who had been at Canso, but found no people or vessels there, as we expected; but on his arrival at St. Peters, he found a French officer with 60 men from Louisbourg, and Monsieur Maillard a priest, and the whole tribe of Indians belonging to the Island of St. Peters. Having exchang'd hostages, Capt. Gorham, had a conference with the chiefs of the Indians, which lasted three or four days, the result of which was, they sent a letter to governor Cornwallis, in which they shew much resentment at the English settling there, and say, they are resolved never to be at peace while we have possession of Nova-Scotia. They say they expect great assistance from the Indian nations at Canada, and are promised large rewards from France upon their dispossessing us of Acadia. --- Capt. Gorham met several French families from Nova Scotia, going to settle on Cape-Breton, who told him, they chose rather to quit their lands and estates, than possess them upon the terms propos'd by the English governor. the oath they are required to take on the 22d instant is as follows, "I ----- promise, and sincerely swear, upon the faith of a christian, that I will be entirely faithful, and truly obey his majesty king GEORGE the second, whom I acknowledge as the sovereign of Acadia or Nova-Scotia. So help me GOD." --- Col. Gorham with his company was posted on the head of the river on the Minas road, and a Detachment of soldiers from Annapolis was also posted and well fortified at Minas. 'Tis said a company of men will be posted in every place where the French have any considerable settlement.
We are also told by a gentleman just arrived from Halifax, that all sorts of provisions are so plenty there, that it will not fetch the first cost. A vessel just come in from that place, we are told, has brought back her live stock.
We hear from Halifax in Nova-Scotia, that on Saturday the 20th of August last, a Switzer stabb'd a sailor in the breast, so that he died immediately of which he was found guilty and condemned; and was hang'd the Saturday after, near the place where he committed the murder.
December 19, 1749
Pennsylvania Gazette (Fair Use © Accessible Gazette Inc.)
[November 23, 1749]
The speech of the honourable SPENCER PHIPS, Esq; lieutenant governor and commander in chief, in and over his majesty's province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New England, to the General Assembly, met at Boston, on Thursday, November 23, 1749. ....
I congratulate you, gentlemen, upon the favour of divine providence in the safe arrival of the money allowed by the parliament of Great Britain, for our expence in reducing cape breton, whereby we are enabled in a good measure to pay off the great debt contracted by the charge of the late war, and now lying upon this province; .... November 23, 1749.
Boston, December 4 
The following letter from the Cape Sable Indians, to his excellency governor Cornwallis, was brought hither by a vessel lately arrived from Halifax, viz.
"The place where thou art, the place where thou dost lodge, the place where thou dost fortify, the place where thou thinkest to establish, the place thou desirest to make thyself master of; that place is mine. I am sprung from this land as doth the grass, I think am a savage, am born there, and my fathers before me. This land is mine inheritance, I swear it is, the land which God has given to be my Country for ever. I tell thee plainly the thoughts of my heart concerning thee; for the works thou makest at Chebucta [Halifax], affords me subject of serious reflection.---My king and they king, have agreed among themselves, upon certain distribution of lands, and therefore are at present at peace; for my part, I can neither enter into an alliance, or make peace with thee.---Shew me where I an Indian can retire. 'Tis thou that chasest me; shew me where thou wilt that I take refuge. Thou hast taken possession of almost all this country, insomuch that Chebucta is my last recourse; yet thou enviest me, even that spot, thou wouldst drive me from that. This evinces me, that thou wilt oblige me never to cease making war against thee, and never to think of an alliance with thee.---Thou gloriest in thy great numbers.--For my part, who am a very small number, I cannot do better than trust in God, who must judge between us. The worm creeping, that creeps, knows how to defend itself when attacked;surely savage as I am, am better than a worm, and must know how to defend myself when attack'd. I shall come to see thee soon; yes, trust me, I will see thee.---I hope that what I shall hear from thy own mouth will afford me some comfort.---I greet thee well. Signed, All the Savages of Isle Royal and Malkakonnock, and Port Jau houn and St. Michael." ...