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An Event Chronology Based on Louisbourg Accounts Not Available in the Archives of the Fortress of Louisbourg, By Eric Krause, Krause House Info-Research Solutions, 2004 - Present



To his Excellency the Honourable George Clinton, Esq; captain general and governor in chief in and over the province of New-York, and the territories thereon depending in America, and vice-admiral of the same, and vice-admiral of the White Squadron of His Majesty's fleet, &c. : The humble address of His Majesty's Council for the province of New-York. [New York : Printed by James Parker, 1745]


Moses pleading with God for Israel: or, A solemn call to all the children and servants of the Lord of hosts, by faith and prayer, continually to address the throne of grace, for all needful blessings to be afforded unto their fleets and forces, when going forth to war: and for the church of God universal. : With a Word to our brethren gone and going out on the present expedition against Cape-Breton. [Boston] : Sold by Benjamin Gray at the north side of the Dock-Market., 1745.


Jared Eliot, God's marvellous kindness,: illustrated in a sermon preach'd at the South Society in Killingworth, on the general thanksgiving in the colony of Connecticut, July 25. 1745. Occasion'd by taking the city of Louisbourg on the Isle of Cape-Breton, by New-England soldiers, assisted by a British squadron, June 17. 1745 / By Jared Eliot, A.M. Pastor of the First Church in Killingworth. N. London [i.e., New London, Conn.], : Printed and sold by T. Green,, 1745.


L. G., Brief journal of the taking of Cape-Breton,  put in metre, by L.G. one of the soldiers in the expedition.  [New London, Conn.? : Printed by Timothy Green?, 1745]

Brother Ephraim sold his cow / to buy him a commission / and then he went to Canada / to fight for the nation. / When his commission he had got / he proved an arrant coward / he dared not go to Cape Breton / for fear he'd be devoured ...

[Stuart Murray, America's Song: The Story of "Yankee Doodle (Images from the Past, Bennington, Vt., 1999) - ]


His Honour the President
William Skene Esq
William Shirreff
Erasmus James Philipps Esq
Otho Hamilton Esq
Edward How Esq John Handfield Esq
Edward Amhurst Esq

.... Another Letter from Amand Bugaud Inhabitant of Mines giving an Accot of his Voyage to Lewisbourg & being detained there & afterwards obliged to accompany the french in their Expedition acquainting him of the many threatnings which has hindered him from Coming here as summoned to do being afraid after such great Menaces ...

[Source: Minutes of H. M. Council, 1736-1749, Annapolis Royale in , © Lucie LeBlanc Consentino Acadian & French Canadian Ancestral Home 2006 - Present]


January 26, 1745

By His Excellency William Shirley, Esq; ... A proclamation.  : Whereas the Great and General Court or assembly of this province, upon due consideration of the present state and circumstances of the French settlements upon the island of Cape-Breton, have judged it expedient to attempt the reduction of that place to the obedience of the crown of Great Britain, and have voted a suitable encouragement for the enlistment of three thousand voluntiers for that service ... Given at the Council-chamber in Boston, the twenty-sixth day of January 1744 [new style, 1745].

January 30?, 1745

Williamsburg, January 30, 1745 ...

In our last we mentioned a Fleet, bound for Cape Breton, with Forces, being spoke with off our Coast, and that Two of the Transport Ships were arriv'd. Since that, his Majesty's Ships, the Dover, Capt. Collins, and the Torring- ton, Capt. Hardy, of forty Guns each, are arriv'd in Hampton Road, with five more of the Transport Ships, two of which are gone to York, the others are at Hampton; one of the Fleetis not yet come in; they have with them 1500 Soldiers, and their Officers.

Virginia ss.

By His Majesty's Lieutenant Governor, and Commander in Chief of this Dominion,

                                                                                                                         A Proclamation,

Whereas the two Regiments bound for Cape Breton, have been forced into this Colony, and will be obliged to continue here until they can be able to get into the Harbour of Louisburg, and prosecute that important Service to which they are destin'd : I have thought proper to order, and do hereby strictly order and require all Persons to treat the soldiers with Civility and Kindness, and to furnish them with such Necessaries they shall want, at the lowest and most reasonable Rates ...

[William Maxwell, editor, The Virgnia Historical Register and Literay Companion Volume 5 (Richmond: MacFarlane and Fergusson, 1852), p. 154 - ]


February 2, 1745

By His Excellency Benning Wentworth, Esq; ... A proclamation. : Whereas I have, with the advice of His Majesty's Council, issued out a proclamation for enlisting a number of soldiers, to go against His Majesty's enemies ... Given at the Council chamber in Portsmouth, the second day of February 1744 [1745 n.s.].

February 2, 1745

By His Excellency Benning Wentworth, Esq; ... A proclamation. : Whereas the General Assembly of this province, upon due consideration of the present state and circumstances of the French settlements upon the island of Cape-Breton, have judged it expedient to attempt the reduction of that place to the obedience of the crown of Great Britain, and have voted a suitable encouragement for the enlistment of a number of voluntiers for that service ... Given at the Council-chamber in Portsmouth, the second day of February 1744 [new style, 1745].

Boston, January 14.

... January, 21. By a Letter from Capt. Inches, late Commander of a Brigt. belonging to this Place, who came from England with the Fleet bound to these Parts in the Summer past, dated at Antigua, Dec. 7, 1744, we have an Account that on the 20th of October last, in the Lat. 42 N. and Long. 56. he was taken by a Sloop bound from Martineco to cape breton, with 15 Men and small Arms, but no Cannon. She was designed for a Privateer and was going to cape breton to get Men and Guns, but had no Commission, and 'tis said, that upon the arrival of the Brigt. at Martineco, the Governor seiz'd her for himself. Capt. Inches and two of his Men were taken on board the French Sloop, which as they were going into Martineco, was taken by his Majesty's Ship the Severn, and carried into Barbados, from whence Capt. Inches got a Passage to Antigua, and is soon expected here. He writes, that if his Men would have stood by him, and defended themselves, he should not have been taken; but they proving a Crew of cowardly Fellows, the Owner lost a good Vessel, and the Freighters a very valuable Cargo of Hemp, Gunpowder, dry Goods, &c.

January 26, 1745

By His Excellency William Shirley, Esq; ... A proclamation.  : Whereas the Great and General Court or assembly of this province, upon due consideration of the present state and circumstances of the French settlements upon the island of Cape-Breton, have judged it expedient to attempt the reduction of that place to the obedience of the crown of Great Britain, and have voted a suitable encouragement for the enlistment of three thousand voluntiers for that service ... Given at the Council-chamber in Boston, the twenty-sixth day of January 1744 [new style, 1745].

[ March 12, 1745]


... That several small Ships of the cape breton Fleet were taken; and that the said Fleet having been dispersed by stormy Weather, it was expected more of them would be brought in - ...

Boston, March 18.

We learn by Capt. Freeman, that the French Ships that sail'd from cape breton last Fall, were all arrived safe in France, except two Bankers....

The SPEECH of His Excellency
Captain-General and Governor in Chief, in and over
His Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay
in NEW ENGLAND, to the General Assembly of
said Province, met at BOSTON on
Wednesday the 3d of April.

Gentlemen of the COUNCIL, and House of REPRESENTATIVES,

IN Pursuance of the Resolution of this Court for forming an Expedition against the French Settlements on Cape Breton, pass'd the 25th of January last, which is agreeable to His Majesty's Pleasure signify'd to me upon the present Rupture with France, 'That I should take all Opportunities, as far as depended upon me, to distress and annoy the French in their Settlements, Trade and Commerce,' I have raised Three Thousand Voluntiers under proper Officers to be employed in His Majesty's Service upon that Expedition; Two Thousand eight Hundred of which by the 24th Day of last Month, and the Remainder within two Days after were embarqued and sail'd for Canso, where they were to be join'd with Three Hundred and Fifty Troops more rais'd by the Government of New Hampshire for the same Service, upon my Application to Governor Wentworth, and to proceed from thence by the first favourable Opportunity to Chappeaurouge Bay, to which Place I expect they will be followed some time this Week by Five Hundred Troops more from Connecticut, rais'd likewise for the same Service by That Government, upon my Application to them: And after the most diligent and exact Enquiry into the State of the Enemies Forces and Fortifications upon that Island, from Persons intimately acquainted with both, I have endeavoured to form such a Plan of Operations to be executed immediately upon the landing of our Troops there, as may, I hope, with the Blessing of Divine Providence on his majesty's Arms, render our Attempts against the Enemy under their present Circumstances successful, provided our Naval Force shall prove sufficient to hinder them from being reinforced in the mean time with recruits and Supplies from France: For preventing which, as well as to cut off all Intelligence from the Enemy, and intercept any Provision-Vessels which might arrive to 'em from other Parts, I sent away, near three Weeks ago, three Ships of 20 Guns each, two Snows of 16 Guns, and an arm'd Brigantine of near the same Force (which, together with some other Vessels of War, are employed by this Government in the Service of the present Expedition) well mann'd and equip'd, with Orders to cruise before the Harbour of Louisbourg till the Arrival of our Land Forces at Cape Breton, after which those Vessels will be immediately join'd by Capt. Rouse in a Snow of 24 Guns, and the Connecticut Colony Sloop, in order to block up the Enemies Harbour more closely. - And that I might procure as strong an Armament by Sea as well as Land, as may be upon this Occasion, I not only apply'd to the Neighbouring Governments of New England, New York, the Jerseys and Pennsylvania, to furnish their respective Quota's of Sea as well as Land Forces for this Enterprize in the common Cause, but to the Commanders of His Majesty's Ships of War station'd in those Parts for their Assistance also, as far as his Majesty's Service in their several Stations would admit; and particularly appriz'd Commodore Warren by an Express sent to Antigua, of the whole Scheme of the Expedition, representing to him the Advantages we have over the Enemy at present: and that for securing the Success against 'em it was necessary that we should have a sufficient Naval Force before the Harbour of Louisbourg by the middle of March at furthest, (if possible) not only to intercept the Enemy's Provision-Vessels, but Monsieur Duvivier, who was expected by that Time with Recruits and Supplies for the Enemies Garrison, and perhaps some Troops design'd against Annapolis-Royal, under convoy of a Fifty-four and a Sixty-gun Ship; the intercepting of which would be a killing Blow to the Town and Garrison of Louisbourg; but that it would be impossible for us to muster up here, a sufficient Naval Force for that Purpose, without the Assistance of two Fifty or Forty Gun Ships' and therefore pressing him in the strongest Terms, 'if he could possibly spare two such Ships, he would assist us with One; which might perhaps be sufficient, as I was in hopes from Advices I had received from England, that one, if not Two, of His Majesty's Ships of War might be expected to arrive here with Stores for New Hampshire and Annapolis-Royal by the middle of March, tho' I could make no absolute Dependance upon that.' And as His Majesty's Ship, the Bien Amime Prize, Capt. Gayton Commander, then and still in this Harbour, and which I understood was sent partly to load with Masts of such Dimensions as could not begot ready before the latter End of June, 'I desir'd likewise that we might have the Assistance of that Ship for the expedition, or Mr. Warren's Orders to His Majesty's Ships station'd at Virginia for that Purpose;' and requesting that what Ships he sent us might proceed directly to Canso; for which Purpose I sent him two skilful Pilots, - appriz'd him that I should send his Majesty an Account of the Expedition by a Bristol Vessel the Day following. - In Answer to this Letter I receiv'd another from Mr. Warren, dated Feb. 24th, by the Return of the Express-Boat, which arriv'd at Boston the 19th of last Month, wherein he inform'd me, that 'he should be very glad to be employ'd in this Expedition, but that the unhappy Loss of the Weymouth, in which Ship he should have come here sometime in March, pursuant to his Orders to attend on New-England, had prevented him: That he had sent my Letters and Scheme by at Vessel of War express to the Admiralty, by the return of which to Antigua, he should not doubt receive full Instructions for his future Proceedings; and that in the mean Time he should in a very few Days dispatch the Launceston to attend on New-England, and the Mermaid to New York; pursuant to his Directions from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty:' And by the same Express-Boat Capt. Gayton receiv'd Orders from Commodore Knowles which have prevented him from assisting us with his Ship in the Expedition. - Since this (Five Days ago) I have receiv'd two other Letters from Mr. Warren, dated the 9th and 15th of last Month, the first at Antigua, and the latter from on board the Superbe, informing me, 'That on the 8th of last Month his Majesty's Sloop Hind arriv'd at Antigua, and brought him Orders to proceed with the Superbe, Launceston and Mermaid, without Loss of Time to Boston; on is Passage to which Place was at the Time of Writing of his Letter, in Latitude of 22 Degrees; and that he hop'd soon to arrive in Nantasket Road, and concert such Measures with me as may conduce most to the Protection of the Colonies and Trade, and the carrying on of His Majesty's Service in general.' - Upon the Receipt of which I dispatch'd a Letter by; a Schooner sent Express to meet him, apprizing him of the Departure and State of our Land and Sea Forces, and recommending to him to send one of his Ships at least forthwith before Louisbourg, to join our Cruizers there, without coming first to Nantasket, which I apprehended to be of great Consequence to His Majesty's Service. - And I am now in hourly Expectation of hearing further of Mr. Warren, and the Ships under his Command; and hope they may come in time to secure Success to the present Expedition, which, according to the ordinary Course of human Events, may be look'd on as most probable, if these Ships shall arrive seasonably before Louisbourg.


As I am persuaded it must be a satisfaction to you to be inform'd of the several Steps hitherto taken for conducting this important Enterprize, with the Success of them, I have been induc'd to be the more particular in my Account of the Success of my Endeavours for procuring a sufficient Naval Force for the Service of it; and I may assure you that no Vigilance or Attention has or shall be wanting in me to make the other necessary Dispositions for the Support of it with all possible Dispatch, and to make the event of it answer the great Ends propos'd by it for his Majesty's Service, and the general Interests of his British Dominions, as well as the particular Interests of New England, and the other British Colonies on the Continent; and to provide a safe Retreat for our Forces upon any extraordinary Emergency, that may require it.

In the mean time it must afford you the highest Satisfaction to observe the particular Regard, which His Majesty's Ministers have shewn for the Protection of these Colonies, by their before-mentioned Orders to Commodore Warren: And the warm Assurances I have receiv'd from His Majesty's Governours in the Colonies of New York, the Jerseys and Pennsylvania, of their most hearty Endeavours to engage the Colonies under their respective Governments in the Support of the common Cause upon this Occasion, have given me great Encouragement to proceed in this Expedition; towards securing the Success whereof I immediately receiv'd from Governour Clinton, upon my Request to him for that Purpose, a considerable Train of artillery, without which we could not have had the same Prospect of reducing the Island as we now have.
Council Chamber,
April 3, 1745. W. SHIRLEY.

April 4, 1745

I KI. 8:44-45: "A people of God may be called of God to go forth to war against their enemies" (p. 3)
"Fast for success in the expedition against Cape Breton April 4, 1745"

[Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, General Collection of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Jonathan Edwards Collection, Gen Mss 151, Writings of Jonathan Edwards, Series 1, Box 1, Folder 79, 1745, 1755]

Boston, April 8.

Saturday last the following Order was passed by the Great and General Court of Assembly, for the Information of all that are concerned, or incline to be concerned in the Lottery, viz.

In Council, April 5.

Ordered, That the Time for drawing the Lottery Tickets by the Directors or Managers, be further lengthened out to the 4th Day of June next, and the said Directors be and hereby are impowered to proceed to dispose of said Tickets until that Time; and what of said Tickets shall then remain undispos'd of, shall be the proper Lot and Share of the Province; and the said Directors shall then proceed to draw, pursuant to the Lottery Act.

By the Master of a vessel who has been a Prisoner at Martineco, and came from thence about 6 Weeks ago, we are informed, that 5 Vessels that were coming to Cape-Breton from France the last Fall, with Stores and Provisions for Louisburg, but were blown off the Coast; were fitting out at Martineco, (with several other Vessels) for Louisburg, and 'tis hoped all or most of them will fall into the Hands of our Cruziers.

Thursday last came in the Ranger Privateer, Capt. McNeal, from a Cruize; we hear he has, in Consort with two others, taken 3 or 4 small Prizes in his Cruize, which have been ransom'd at the Canaries. About 3 Weeks ago, they came up with a large French Ship bound to France, with which they engaged 4 Hours, but the Weather being boisterous, lost her in the Night.

Piscataqua, April 11.

Arrived here, Capt. Peter Shoars, in 18 Days from Barbados, who informs, That he came out in Company with 20 Sail other Merchant Vessels, under Convoy of his Majesty's Ship Lynn, and a Snow, as far as 24 North Lat. That fur Days after the Convoy left him, he fell in with three Sail of French Ships, laden with Provisions from Martineco, bound to Cape-Breton, under Convoy of the Privateer formerly commanded by Captain Loring of Boston. (those Ships sailed last Winter from old France for cape breton, with Provisions and Stores for the Garrison there, but by Severity of the Weather, were drove off the Coast to Martineco.) ...

Philadelphia, April 12, 1745.

We hear from Lisbon, that the Kinsale Man of War, Capt. Young, has taken Six of the cape breton Fleet, Five of which he brought in there, and sent the other to England. That the Surprize Privateer, of London, Captain Redman, had met with an engaged another of them, an East India Man, which he took after an obstinate Fight, but that she sunk before she could be got into Port. And that the Philadelphia Galley, Capt. Hughston, of this Place, is safe arrived in England.

Newport, April 13

... On Sunday last our Colony sloop Tartar sail'd to New London, according to appointment, to join the Connecticut Sloop, and convoy the Regiment raised by that Government for the present Expedition. Three Companies were voted to be raised by this little Colony; but great Numbers of People being already abroad in the Service, it is simply impossible to complete the Levies as suddenly as where great Numbers of People were flung out of Employment by the War. Two large Privateers, a Ship of 20 Guns, and a Snow of 16, belonging to this Port, have been in the Service of the Expedition some Time, cruizing off Lewisburg, and the last is partly paid by the Merchants of this Town; 100 generously subscribed from 50 £. to 500 £. a Man, on that Occasion.

Boston, April 15.

... From Marblehead we have certain Advice, That a Fishing Schooner belonging to that Place, spoke with Commodore Warren, in his Majesty's Ship the Superbe of 60 Guns, the Mermaid and Launceston of 40 Guns being in Company, the 9th Inst. That being informed by the Fishermen that our Land and Sea Forces were departed for cape breton, he took the Skipper, one Chapman, and another good Man, out of the Fisherman, as Pilots, and ordered the Schooner to lay by, that he might send Advices to the Governor at Boston; but the Night proving very Foggy they lost Sight; whereupon the Schooner returned the next Day to bring this Advice; so that we may conclude the Commodore with the other Ships are gone to cape breton, which doubtless will add to the Spirits of our Forces, and render the Reduction of that Place the more easy.

Boston, April 22.

The Speech of his Excellency William Shirley, Esq; Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, to the General Assembly of the said Province, met at Boston, on Wednesday the 17th of April, 1745.

Gentlemen of the Council and House of Representatives,

During the late shore Recess, I have had the Honour of a Letter from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, signifying to me his Majesty's gracious Concern for the Protection of his Subjects, and their Interests in his Northern Colonies, against the Injuries and Invasions of the French; and the Measures he is taking for attacking and distressing them in their Settlements in North America, in which it is his Royal Pleasure that we should join our Forces to make these Designs more effectual; and therefore it is very happy, and will, I hope, recommend us to his Majesty's Favour, that this Government hath been so early in their Preparations for this Service, and provided and equipped such a Force as has been lately sent from hence upon the present Expedition.

I have also received a Letter from Commodore Warren, dated the 12th Instant, he being then near Cape Sable, and proceeding with his majesty's Ships the Superbe, Launceston and Mermaid, to join our Fleet at Canso, or if they should be gone from thence, to meet them off Louisbourg, to assist the Expedition against that Place. The Chearfulness and Zeal with which Mr. Warren undertakes this Service, and the great Concern he has for the Success of it, and the Prosperity of these Provinces so much depending thereon (which you will find by his Letter, a Copy whereof I shall lay before you) greatly recommends him to our Respect and Affections.

Hitherto the Divine Providence seems to have favoured our Enterprize in a remarkable Manner, which we ought thankfully to observe and acknowledge, and thereby be encouraged to place our chief Confidence in the same Divine Goodness and Power for granting us an happy Event of it.

Soon after my receiving his Majesty's Orders concerning the garrisoning of Fort Dummer (which I then communicated to you) I sent a Copy thereof to Governor Wentworth, with my Desire, that he would let me know as soon as may be the Resolution of the Government of New Hampshire on that Point: In answer to which I have lately received a Letter from him, purporting that he should lay the Affair before the Assembly of that Province at their next Session (which was to have been in the Beginning of this Month) and was in hopes that they would comply with his majesty's Commands in that Behalf. --- Since their Meeting I have heard nothing from Governor Wentworth on that Subject. And as it still seems uncertain whether that Government will be at the Charge of supporting a Garrison at Fort Dummer or not, and the Time you have limited for the Continuance of the Pay of that Garrison there will expire Tomorrow, I must desire you would lengthen it to some further Time, till we can have a final Answer from New Hampshire.


Agreeable to Orders from the Hon. Commodore Warren, which came last Monday, Capt. Durrell, in the Eltham, of 40 Guns, sailed from Piscataqua on Tuesday, in order to join with him and our Fleet on the present Expedition. And we hear that Capt. Gayton, in his Majesty's Ship Bien Aime, has Orders to the same Purport.

Last Friday Morning the Transport Vessels, with the Connecticut Forces on board, designed for Cape Breton, were spoke with off Nantucket, standing their proper Course.

Last Saturday arrived at Piscataqua a Sloop taken by Capt. Fletcher, in a Brigantine in the Service of the Government, on the 17th of March past, about 15 Leagues to the Eastward of Cape Breton. She came from Martineco, and has on board 100 Hogsheads of Rum, 20 Hogsheads of Molasses, some Casks of Sugar, Cocoa, Indigo, and some Bales of dry Goods, &c. The Master of this Sloop informed Capt. Fletcher, that 4 Ships, under Convoy of the Brig. taken from Captain Loring last Year, were to sail from Martineco for Louisbourg four Days after him.

By the same Vessel his Excellency received Letters from General Pepperil, dated at Canso, the 10th Instant, informing, that all the Troops raised in this Province, and that of New Hampshire, were arrived safe at Canso, except those on board a few Transports, who were in at Winter Harbour, and daily expected. That the Men were in good Health and high Spirits, and that upon the Arrival of the rest of the Troops, he designed to sail for Chappeaurouge Bay with the first fair Wind.

Capt. Donahew, in his Passage to Canso, had the good Fortune to take 3 of the Cape Sable Indians, who inform'd him, that Monsieur Duviviere had ordered all the Indians in the French Interest, to be ready at Menis by the last of May, when he would be back from France with two 20 Gun Ships, &c. to attack Annapolis Royal.

We don't find by any Letters taken in this Prize, that the French at Martineco had any Account or Intelligence of this Expedition: Nor do we learn from the Indians, that they at Cape Breton had the least Knowledge of it.

We hear that last Friday the General Assembly here ordered Fifty Pounds new Tenor, to be laid out in live Stock, and sent as a Present to Commodore Warren with all possible Speed, as a Token of their Respect for that worthy Commander.

Wednesday arrived Capt. Gould in 26 Days from New Providence, in whom came Capt. Inches, who was taken last Fall in his Passage from London, and got afterwards to St. Kitts, from whence he again sail'd in a Sloop bound to this Place, but on the 8th of January was taken by a French Ship bound from Bourdeaux to Cape Francois, who carried them into this Port, where they were kept Prisoners 7 Weeks, and then were put on board their own Vessel, fitted out by the French with a Cargo for Louganne; which they designed first to dispose of there, and then as a Flag of Truce to proceed to Jamaica; but before they reach'd Louganne she was retaken by one Capt. Walker, and carried into Providence. He also informs us, that Capt. Dennis of Rhode Island having taken a Dutch Sloop off Barcelonga Keys, with Dry Goods on board, to the value of 3000 Pieces of 8, bound for Hispaniola, he put some of his Men on board, in order to carry her to Providence; but soon after she sprang a Leak, and they were oblig'd to put into Cape Francois to save their Lives, where the French took Possession of Vessel and Cargo, and sent the Men to Prison.

BOSTON, Apr. 24, 1745.


I hope this will find you at Louisbourg with a Bowl of Punch a Pipe and a P--k of C--ds in your hand and whatever else you desire (I had forgot to mention a Pretty French Madammoselle). We are very Impatiently expecting to hear from you, your Friend Luke has lost several Beaver Hatts already concerning the Expedition, he is so very zealous about it that he has turned Poor Boutier out of his House for saying he believed you would not Take the Place.--Damn his Blood says Luke, let him be an Englishman or a Frenchman and not pretend to be an Englishman when he is a Frenchman in his Heart. If drinking to your success would Take Cape Briton, you must be in Possession of it now, for it's a standing Toast. I think the least thing you Military Gent'n can do is to send us some arrack when you take ye Place to celebrate your Victory and not to force us to do it in Rum Punch or Luke's bad wine or sour cyder.

To Collonell Robert Hale
  at (or near) Louisbourg.

[Source: - Francis Parkman, A Half-Century of Conflict, Volume 02, Chapter XVIII, John Payne of Boston to Colonel Robert Hale, of the Essex regiment]

[April 25, 1745]

Commodore Warren arrived before Cape Breton, April 25, and sent for the troops at Canso to come immediately and join him. He had taken a sloop; 2 brigs, and a ship from Martinco going into Cape Breton, but a small French man of war made her escape. The possession of cape Breton will be of very great consequence, as it may secure our fishery, and destroy that of the French.

[Source: Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 15, June 1745, p. 334.]

[May, 1745]

The Committee appointed to draw up Instructions for the Representatives relative to the Lottery, report the following Draft Viz.


This Town confiding in your Loyalty to Our Sovereign, & firm Attachment to the Liberties & Privileges of this People, have made Choice of you, to represent them in the next General Assembly & expect of you, that you do your Utmost, and that very early to prevent the Mischief, which may Arise to the Province, by proceeding upon the Lottery, according to a Resolve or Order of Court on ye 5th of April Ultimo [last]. It being questioned by Some, whether such an Order is sufficient to overset and repeal, or any ways to Alter a Law made with greatest Solemnity? And then, whether it be consistent with Justice? For the Province to take such a large share of the Tickets, as seems likely to fall to their Lott, without paying one Farthing for them; The Foundation, on which the Lottery seems to be built, being this; That every Ticket, that is purchased, should pay six Pounds [that is £6 in Old Tenor notes which equalled 30s in Second New Tenor notes] into Bank; and if the Province [Tickets] pay nothing, and the principal Benefit Tickets should fall to the Share of private Persons, how can They be paid? Since all the public Money is Appropriated to other Uses. To this Some may say, a Tax must be laid on the People, but it is [cross out] disputable, Whether the Charter can warrant such a Tax, it not being for the necessary Defence & Support of the Government; and, Although it may be said the Province have an equal [chance] of being great Gainers, yet `tis to be feared it may do Us more harm than good;

For Since, We may hope, Our Charge in the Expedition will be repaid us by the Crown, it will doubtless be Objected at Home, We have gained so much by this -- Lottery, which was projected to lessen Our Charge, that it will be needless to grant such Sum, as otherwise, they may be inclined to Allow us, and so in the End may be a detriment rather than any Advantage to Us. Nay it is more that probable, they will Object, that as We are got into the Method of Lotterys, in order to ease our Burthens, We may proceed in that way, and so save them, [cross out] the Expence of defraying the Charge of the Expedition.

Upon there and such like considerations We desire and hope, this Projection may never be further proceeded on, but a final Stop may be put to it by the next General Assembly, and therefore Direct you to Use your Interests, and Endeavours accordingly.


The Honorable Samuel Welles, Esquire
Thomas Cushing, Esquire

Thomas Hutchinson, Esquire
Andrew Oliver, Esquire

The foregoing Draft of Instructions is Submitted
Boston May 1745 by

Ezekiel Lewis
James Allen
(David ?) Allen

[Source: University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Department of Special Collections  - Transcription: ]

Extract of a Letter from an Officer on board the Massachusetts,
off Louisburg, dated May 4.

The whole Fleet of Transports of upwards of an hundred sail came down here on the 30th ult. The chief of 'em entred Chapeaurouge Bay, under the Guns of the Caesar, Boston Packet, Massachusetts, Capt. Sanders, and the Connecticut Colony Sloop. The French were no ways apprized of our intended Invasion, till they saw our whole Fleet of Transports coming. When they found we were coming to Land, they march'd down about 200 Men to oppose us. We had but 100 landed, under Col. Gorham, who did not stay to draw up in Form, but surrounded the French, and kept popping at them, kill'd 4 or 5 and wounded several, and took a great many of the Prisoners, some of them Persons of Distinction, and the rest took to their Heels. Among the Wounded was Morepang, who narrowly scaped being taken, and is now in the Woods. This Day and the next, being May 1 all the Men were landed in high Spirits, and a great many Prisoners brought in every Day, and 'tis said many Swiss and French daily desert and come over to us. In landing we had 2 Men wounded. - The French say our Men fight like Devils; for go which way they will, they are popping at them like true Indian Hunters. On Thursday the 2 of May, we had the agreeable Sight of our English Colours flying in several Parts of the Grand Battery, which the French, after plugging up the Touch-Holes, and sawing off some of the Axletrees of the Carriages, and throwing the Powder over the Walls, deserted the Night before, with such Precipitation, that they left the Shot behind 'em, and a Serjeant of ours and 17 Men this Day took Possession of it, and in it they found 20 French, whom they took Prisoners. - This Invasion of ours was so unexpected to them, that they left all their live Stock abroad, which our People are daily picking up. They have got all the Armourers in the Army and Fleet to punch or drill the Plugs out of the Touch-Holes. They got 3 clear the first Day, and on the 3d Instant, and part of the Night, the Island Battery and Royal Battery, kept firing Guns and Bombs at the Grand Battery, but to no Effect. This Day they have got all the Guns cleared, and all the Mortars, Shells and Guns landed out of the Transports. We have got on board 11 French Men of Cape Breton Prisoners, who seem to be very well satisfied with their Lot, and say, they live better on board us than they did on Shore. Capt. Thompson informs us, that the English Flag was flying at the Light House. Our Men seemed spirited with a flaming Zeal for the Reduction of the Place, and can hardly be kept from running in the very Mouth of their Cannon. Nay, some have gone close under the Town Walls, and have pick'd up several Men, under the Muzzels of their Guns. Providence seems to smile on us in every Shape, we having had fine pleasant Weather every Day since our Land Forces came down; and every Day before had hardly any Thing but Rains and Fogs; and doubt not but by the Favour and Smiles of that good Providence, to be intirely Masters of the whole Place in a few Days. They have not above 6 or 700 Men, which is too small a Number for manning so many great Garrisons, and their deserting their chief Fortress, the Grand Battery, sufficiently confirms their want of Numbers. For they never would have quitted that Place, which has not only the Command of the other two Batteries, but also of the Sea-board, were they not drove to the greatest Straights and Difficulties: Besides, the other Batteries cannot annoy the Grand Battery. Our Fleet took on the 30th ult. a Ship of 200 Tons, 14 Guns and 27 Men, loaded chiefly with Provisions, having above 30 Tons of Bread, and a Quantity of Gunpowder. We are going after two Ships we hear of, and so must conclude in haste.

By other Letters we are informed that they found 42 Cannon in the Grand Battery, most of 'em 43 Pounders. - That our People are encamped about a Mile from the Town, and have erected a Fascine Battery of Cannon, which was ready to play on the Town; they have also erected a Battery of 3 Mortars, from whence Bombs are thrown into the Town with good Success. - That the French keep almost continually firing on our People, both from their Cannon and Mortars, but do little or no Damage. - That they had several Times attempted to land in order to attack the Island Battery, but were prevented by the boisterousness of the Sea. However, that they intended to attack it the 12th in the Evening. - That it was the general Opinion that the Town could not hold out many Days longer. - That a Day or 2 after our Men had taken Possession of the Grand Battery, the French sent 300 Men in Boats to retake it, but were beat off by a handful of our Men and obliged to return to the Town. - That upon the Approach of the Massachusetts Frigate within two Miles of the Island Battery, the French sunk and burnt several of their Vessels. - And, that our People keep a continual firing upon the Town from the Grand Battery.

The only disagreeable Article of News we have, is that some of our Men having imprudently strolled away from their Post, seventeen were surprised and taken by a Body of 300 Indians, and barbarously murdered after Quarter given.

On Saturday Capt. Donahew arrived here from Cape Breton, and brought 5 or 6 Prizes, and 40 or 50 Prisoners, Men, Women and Children, and two Indian Chiefs. 'Tis said this brisk and daring Commander has taken 7 Prizes, burnt and plundered some hundreds of Houses and Huts, destroy'd a great Number of Indian Canoes, taken 10 Indians and many French Prisoners. He also attacked and put to Flight a Body of 150 Indians on Cape Sables Shore, and if he had been well supported by his Consort, would have done much greater Execution.

Capt. Donahew intends to make a Privateer of one his prizes, a large Brigantine, she being an excellent Sailer.

We are informed by Capt. Donahew, that before he left Cape Breton, Capt. Durrell in the Eltham, and Capt. Tyng in the Massachusetts, had taken two rich Ships in a Harbour ten leagues from Louisburg, just arrived from France.

We also hear, that Capt. Smethurst, in the Prince of Orange, was soon to sail for this Port, with several Prizes taken from the Enemy.

We have likewise Advice, that Capt. Tyng in the Massachusetts, met with and engaged a Ship of 14 Guns and 30 Men from Bourdeaux, laden with Wine and Brandy, and tore her almost to Pieces, being close along side her, but it being Night, and very near the Shore, Capt. Tyng durst not follow her any further, and so she got into Louisburg, but so maul'd that she sunk soon after she got in.

There is now a very large Ship coming in, supposed to be Capt. Adams from London.

... Extract of a Letter from Nevis, dated May 5,
1745 to one in Town.

The Privateers support St. Kitts with Prize Ships; three large Ships carried there this Week; one of them a French Guineaman, with 370 Negroes, and a great Quantity of Dust and Teeth; she was taken within a League of Martineco by a small Sloop commanded by one Loyd.

Boston, May 6.

Last Thursday Capt. Rouse, Commander of a Snow of 20 Guns, in the Service of this Government, arrived here in 7 Days from Canso, and brings the following Account of our Army and Fleet, viz. That all the Forces were arrived, and that the Army was still at Canso, in good Health and high Spirits, and very impatient to be in Action, but had not been able to land on the French Shore, for the Ice that was in all the Bays and Harbours. However as the Ice began to break away, the General intended to sail for Chippeaurouge Bay the first fair Wind. He was inform'd by some of the Enemy, who were taken Prisoners, that the Soldiers in Louisbourg having mutinied (in December last) for want of Pay, &c. the Governor was obliged to call in all the Men upon the Island to suppress them.

Commodore Warren was arriv'd at Canso, with the Superbe, Launceston and Mermaid, as was also Capt. Durrell in the Eltham from Piscataqua. Two Brigs and 3 or 4 Schooners, bound from Martineco to Lousibourg, have been taken by our Cruizers. One of the Brigs was a Privateer formerly commanded by Capt. Loring of this Town, who was taken the last Year by a French Man of War off Cape Breton. This Brig. a few Hours before she fell into our Hands, had taken Capt. Adams, in a Schooner bound to Newfoundland, who was soon after re-taken, and suffered to proceed on his Voyage.

The Connecticut Forces, who were convoyed by their Colony Sloop, and one fitted out by the Colony of Rhode Island, were met, in their Passage to Canso, by a French Ship of upwards of 20 Guns and full of Men. -- The Rhode Island Sloop engaged the Frenchman very briskly, and kept him in Play till the Connecticut Sloop had carried off the Transports, which afterwards arrived all safe at Canso. -- The Rhode Island Sloop suffered so much in the Engagement, that 'twas with the utmost Difficulty she escaped being taken. -- The Ship afterwards fell in with the Rhode Island Snow, and Capt. Fletcher of this Town, who both engaged her smartly for some Time, and did her a great deal of Damage, but having the Heels, got clear off. -- She was afterwards met by Capt. Rouse, who engaged her 6 or 7 Hours, in which Time he expended 500 Wt. of Powder, and would certainly have taken her, if she had not outsailed him. -- It is not certainly known whether this Ship came directly from France, or from Martineco; but most probably from the latter Place, the Prisoners lately taken having informed, that there was a Ship of the same Force at Martineco, that was blown off the last Fall, laden with Stores.

'Tis said, the active Capt. Donahew has taken five more of the Enemy Indians.

Last Friday Capt. Gayton, in a large Ship with about 30 Guns, sail'd for Canso, to join our Fleet in those Parts. And at the same Time several Vessels sail'd with Provisions and Stores for the Fleet and Army.

Last Saturday Night Capt. Rouse sail'd for his Station off Cape Breton.

By Capt. Patridge, who arrived here Yesterday in about 8 Weeks from Tinmouth, near Newcastle, we have the following Advices, viz. That the Empress of Russia, was marching 35,000 Men into Germany, to assist the Queen of Hungary. -- That the Election of an Emperor is appointed to be on the first Day of June next, and that the Candidates are, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, the Elector of Bavaria, the King of Prussia, and the King of Poland. --- That a Cessation of Arms is agreed on between the Courts of Vienna and Munich. --- That the Earl of Oxford was not dead, but given over by his Physicians. --- That his Majesty has appointed his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, Commander of his Forces in Flanders. --- That a Fleet of 28 Men of War, 3 Bomb Vessels and 1 Fireship, was assembling at Spithead, and 'twas said the Command thereof would be given to Admiral Vernon. --- That the Captains Dudding and Craige, of this Town, were taken in their Passage home, but that Capt. Craige was re-taken. --- That the C'----s had voted 500,000 £. to the Queen of Hungary, 200,000 £. to the King of Sardinia, 24,299 £. to the Elector of Cologne, and 8620 £. to the Elector of Mentz. --- And that Capt. Adams was ready to sail to this Port, in February, and may be daily expected.

Yesterday arrived from England, his majesty's Ship Princess Mary, of 60 Guns, Richard Edwards, Esq; Commander, who came out with the Hector of 40 Guns, both design'd to assist in the Expedition against Cape Breton. In their Passage hither they took a Spanish Ship of 300 Tons, 16 Carriage Guns, besides Swivels, and 40 Men, richly laden from the Coast of Caraccas. She was left with the Hector about a Week ago. These two Men of War were design'd to Convoy the Store Ships to Newfoundland and Annapolis Royal, but on the Arrival of Capt. Loring, who was sent by his Excellency our Governor with Dispatches to the Ministry in February last, they were immediately ordered to sail for this Place, and Capt. Loring, (who stay'd but 12 Hours in London) is come Passenger in the Princess Mary. The Ships for Annapolis Royal, &c. were ready, and would sail as soon as another Convoy was appointed.

We find by the Prints, that his Majesty has been pleased to appoint Richard Edwards, Esq; (Commander of the Princess Mary Man of War now here) to be Commander in Chief in and over the Island of Newfoundland, the Forts and Garrisons of Placentia, and all other Forts and Garrisons erected or to be erected.

Boston, May 6.

We have Accounts from Albany, that they have received Intelligence from Canada of a Body of French and Indians fitting out from thence, under one Monsieur Bilatre, as Commander in chief, and a Son of Monsieur Lanoo's, and one Monsieur Artel who are to have the Command under him. -

That the Party is to consist of 5 or 600 Men, and is designed, as some of the Albany Indians say, against Annapolis Royal, and others of 'em report, against the Checasia Indians; which last seems only a Blind. Likewise that they had other Intelligence about the middle of April, that within a few Days there was to be a great Meeting of Indians in Lake Champlea, where they were called by the French from their Hunting; from all which Accounts, it can't be reasonably doubted but that the French were meditating another Attack against Annapolis Royal, in which they expect to be joined by a Naval Force from France sometime this Month. But there is the utmost probability, that our present Enterprize against Cape Breton will either cause the Enemy to desist from making their Attempt against Annapolis-Royal, or frustrate it; so that whatever may be the Success of the present Expedition in other Respects, there seems the utmost Probability of its producing these good Consequences, viz. the Recovery of Canso with our Fishery there, and Preservation of Annapolis Royal, at least for the present.

May 13. On Friday last the Schooner Montague, one of the Ordnance Tenders, arrived here Express from Annapolis Royal, and brought Advice, that Governor Mascarene had received undoubted Information, that 600 French and Indians came in the Winter from Canada to Chignicio, being the same which were seen passing on the Skirts of New England, and arrived at Menis on the 19th April last, part by Land, and part by Sea in the Vessels they found up the Bay; that they had with them 12 Officers, an Engineer and a Surgeon, and were come in Expectation to join the Forces which the French intended should come with Monsieur Duvivier from France and Louisburg; and that two Men of War were expected to be early on our Coast to prevent any Succours from being sent to the Garrison: That upon the Report of Part of the New England Fleet's being seen off the Eastern Coast of Nova Scotia, their Thoughts at Menis were various, some thinking 'em to be the Fishery, others a Force going to take Possession of Canso: That since the News of the Canadeans being arrived at Chignicto, which the Garrison had received five Weeks ago, there had been a grand Expectation among all the Settlements in Nova Scotia, of a very vigorous Attempt upon his Majesty's Garrison at Annapolis Royal; and that a secret Correspondence was discover'd to have been carried on between the Inhabitants of Annapolis River about the Fort and those of the Bay, for which several of the former had been seized and were now confined in Prison; But that as that Fort was now in good repair as to its Out works, there was no fear of the Enemy's doing much harm to the Body of the Place with their Firelocks. --- And upon the Whole, those Letters add, "that if the Enemy's Projects had not been defeated by those of this Government, the Garrison might have had a great deal of Work this Spring."

Yesterday his Majesty's Ship Princess Mary sail'd from Nantasket Road, in order to join Commodore Warren off Louisburg, to the great Satisfaction of all the Wellwishers to the important Expedition, who had been under much Concern that that gallant Ship has been so long from her Station, at this critical juncture.

As Cape Breton at present engages the Attention of our Readers, perhaps the following short Account of the Importance of that Place, will not be disagreeable to many of them.

The Island of Breton, or as the French call it, the Isle Royal, lies between Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, and is about 30 leagues long, and near 10 broad. The Soil is but indifferent, but the Coast is full of good Harbours, in most of which the French have small Settlements and Stages for the Fishery; but there are no Fortifications of any Consequence except at Louisburg. This Town is about three quarters of a Mile long, and nearly oval. It is regularly fortified on the Land Side, and the Harbour is defended by several Batteries.

This Island was given to the French by the (wise) Treaty of Utrecht, and by the Advantage of it they have carried on a prodigious Fishery, annually employing 1000 Sail of Vessels, from 200 to 400 Tons, and 20,000 Men. It is computed that they cure five Millions of Quintals of Fish, Communibus Annis: And in 1730, they carried to Marseilles only, twenty two hundred Thousand Quintals.

From hence it plainly appears to have been a vast Nursery of Seamen, and prodigious Addition to the Riches and Strength of France, and that the Reduction of it must be a proportionable Increase of the Number of British Seamen, and of the Wealth of Britain, and the British Dominions in America: for the French, if removed from thence, have no other Shelter for their Fishery, nearer than Old France, and must therefore of Necessity drop it in a great Measure.

From the Situation of the Island, it commands the Navigation up the great River St. Lawrence, and so cuts off all Communication with Quebeck, by which Means the whole Country of Canada must in a little Time fall into the Hands of the English, if they are once master of Caper Breton. - Some of the many Consequences of which are as follow.

The French Sugar Islands would lose the chief Vent for their Rum and Molasses, and the Supply of Lumber and Provisions they now have from Canada; and the English Islands would gain both. --- Great Britain must have a boundless Vent for all Kinds of their Manufactures, and command the valuable Trade in Fur, with all the Indian Nations. --- And those of them who live near the English Settlements, will have no French Missionaries to stir them up to a mischievous and expensive War.

While on the other Hand, so long as the French keep Possession of that Place, all the British Plantations in North America, will be liable to perpetual Annoyance from their Parties and Indians by Land; and all the British Navigation to and in America, from their Privateers and Men of War, as we have sufficiently experienced the last Summer.

The only Reflection I shall make on these Facts is, that every Man who loves his Country, ought to pray for the Success of the present Expedition.

May 8, 1745

From ye Grand Battre 5 mile & haf  North From ye City Louisbourg.
                                                                                       May ye 8, 1745

My dear Wife, Altho ye many dangers & hazards I have been in since I left you, yet I have been through ye goodness of God Preserved, tho much worried with ye grate business I have upon my hands. But I go cherefully on with it.  I have much to write, But little time Shall only give some hints  Tuesday ye Last day of April, ye fleet landed on ye Island of Cape Breton about 5 miles from Louisbourg. ye French saw our vessels and came out with a company to prevent our Landing But as Fast as ye boats could git on shore ye men were landed. A warm ingagement with them : They sone retreated, we followed them, & drove them into ye woods but few of them abler to git into ye city yt day 4 we killed yt were found many taken we lost not one man : We have taken & killed since many more, ye number I do not know, but not less than eighty parsons which is since killed. The grand Battre is ours : but before we entered it the people were fled out of them, and gon over to ye town But had stopt up ye Tutch-hols of ye cannon ---- General Peppril gave me ye Charge & oversight of above twenty smiths in boaring of them out : Cannon boals & Boums hundred of them were fired at us from ye city & ye Island Fort. Grate numbers of Them struck ye Fort : Some of ye parade among ye People But none of them hurt & as sone as we could git ye cannon clear we gave them Fire for Fire & Bombarded them on ye west side. Louisbourg an exceeding strong handsom & well sittiated place with a fine harber it seams impregnable. But we have ben so succeeded heith-erto yt I do not doubt But Providence will deliver it into our hands.

May ye
12 from
What we have lost of our men I do not certinly know, But I fear
near 20 men ye army in general have been in health : It looks as if
our campane would last long But I am willing to stay till God's
time comes to deliver ye Citty Louisbourg into our hands, which
do not doubt but will in good time be done : we have shut them up
on every side and still are making our works stronger against them.

42 shot they have fired in upon them every day ; one very large mortar we have with we play upon them there houses often braks among them ; there houses are compact, which ye boums must do a grate deal of hirt & distress them in a grate degree Small mortars we have with which we fire in upon them. I have had my health since I landed.

My dear wife I expect to be longer gon from from home then I did when I left it ; but I desire not to think of returning Till Louisbourg is taken : & I hope God will inable you to submit quietly to his will whatever it may be ; & inable you with courage & good conduct to go through ye grate business yt is now upon your hands & not think your time ill spent in teaching & governing your family according to ye word of God.

My company in general are well : Some few of them are Ill, But hope none dangerous.

The affairs at home I can order nothing But must wholly leave Hoping yt they will be well ordered & taken care of : My kind love to Mr. Sweetland my duty to Mother Hunt & love to Brothers and sisters all

My Dear wife If it be the will of God I hope to see your pleasant face again : But if God in his Holly & Sovereign Providence has ordered it others wise, I hope to have a glorious meeting with you in ye Kingdom of heaven where there is no wars nor Fitiguing marches, no roaring cannon nor cracking Boum shells, nor Long Campains ; But an Eternity to spend in Perfect harmony and undisturbed peace.

This is ye hartty Desire & Prayer
of him yt is your Loving

To MRS MARY POMROY at Northhampton in New England.

[Joseph Tinker Buckingham, Edwin Buckingham, Samuel Gridley Howe, John Osborne Sargent, Park Benjamin, The New-England Magazine, Volume 5 (J. T. and E. Buckingham: 1833), pp. 158-159.,M1 ]

May 9, 1745

Williamsburg, May 9th, 1745.

We have Advice that the Ship Hanover, Capt. Churchman, and the James River, Capt. Kennon, bound from Bristol to Virginia, are taken and carried into France. There is a report, that the Forces which lately went from N. England, on an expedition against Cape Breton, are landed near Lewisburg, and that they make no doubt of soon becoming Masters of that Place. We impatiently expect a Confirmation of this News by the Northern Post.

[William Maxwell, editor, The Virgnia Historical Register and Literay Companion Volume 5 (Richmond: MacFarlane and Fergusson, 1852), p. 152 - ]

... Extract of a Letter from Madeira, dated
May 13, 1745. N.S.

By a Brigantine arrived three Days ago from the Canaries, we have certain Advice of six Sail of French Line of Battle Ships sailing from that Port to the Westward the 10th of April, N.S. They kept their Designs secret, but we imagine they are bound for Hispaniola, as they took on board at Teneriff the Archbishop of St. Domingo. They were very sickly Ships, having buried, during the 20 Days they staid at Teneriff, upwards of 400 Men. We have an Account by the Colchester India Man, that Commodore Barnet has taken four Sail of French East-India Ships, homeward bound. By Commodore Pocock, just arriv'd here from England, with 4 sail of Men of War we are informed, That Admiral Lestock, Capt. Ambrose, Capt. Henry Norris, Capt. Burrish, and Capt. Williams, were all sentenced by a Court Martial to be shot; but that the King had shewn Lestock so much Favour, as to order him a second Trial. Capt. Burrish hearing the Sentence of Death passed upon him, immediately shot himself, and Capt. Williams the next Day poisoned himself. It is expected that the Portuguese will be shortly brought into the War.

By Captain Siggins, just arrived here, in ten Weeks from Oporto, we have Advice, that the King of Portugal is raising Twenty-six Thousand additional Forces, and fortifying his Dominions as well as possible, in case he should be obliged to be engaged in the present War against the French.

Private Letters from Boston say, that the Vigilant had on board 70 Pieces of Cannon, 30 of which were for a new Battery to be built in Chappeaurouge Bay; the rest, with 500 Small Arms, and other Stores, were for Privateers to be fitted out at Louisburg to cruize on our Coasts.

They are raising 6 or 700 Men in New England to reinforce the Army at Cape Breton, besides Seamen to man the Vigilant.

[May 13, 1745]

... But the great item of domestic intelligence, which confronts us under various forms in the pages of this Magazine, is the siege and capture of Louisburg, and the reduction of Cape Breton to the obedience of the British crown,--an acquisition for which his Majesty was so largely indebted to the military skill of Sir William Pepperell, and the courage of the New England troops, that we should naturally expect to find the exploit narrated at length in a contemporary Boston magazine. The first of the long series is an extract from the "Boston Evening Post" of May 13, 1745, entitled, "A short Account of Cape Breton"; which is followed by "A further Account of the Island of Cape Breton, of the Advantages derived to France from the Possession of that Country, and of the Fishery upon its Coasts; and the Benefit that must necessarily result to Great Britain from the Recovery of that important Place,"--from the "London Courant" of July 25. .....

[1745, May 13 - French Calendar]

... Le 13, je fis sortir toutes les compagnies de milice avec des haches et des engins pour démolir les batteries qui étoient à la porte Dauphine jusqu'au Barruchois, et pour enlever le bois en ville pour le chauffage de la garnison, n'en ayant pas, et pour faire brûler toutes celles qu'on ne pourroit pas démolir, afin d'empêcher l'ennemy de s'y loger ...

[Louis Chancels de LaGrange, Voyage fait à lisle Royalle ou du Cap Breton en Canada. 1716 sur la frégate l'Atalante commandée par monsieur de Courbon Stleger, livre troisième du 3e tome, texte édité par L.-A. Vigneras, dans Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique française, Montréal, vol. 13, nº 3, Décembre, 1959, p. 428. See:

May 17, 1745

Letter to wife, May 17, 1745

Loving Wife:

This Comes with my love to you, hopeing to find you in health as by the blessing of God I am at present. We landed here the 30th of April, when a number of french came out to hind. (hinder) our Landing, but our men Got on Shore & engaged them & killed severall & took the Lieut'ent.

The 4th of May we lay Seige against the City, which still continues & we are in hopes to be in the City shortly. We have already got possession of the Grand battery, which is one of the Chief batterys. We have now Eight Cannon planted against the City, beside our bombs, mortars, Cohorns (?) and the Grand battery which makes ripping work in the City & there now Lays here four men-of-Warr & we expect Sundry others before our New England Ships.

I desire you'd send me a pott of Butter & Some old Cheese & 6 lbs. Sugar by the first opportunity, as I trust you have a constant remembrance of me in your prayers I ask the continuance of them. I dont expect to get home till the fall of the Year.


Yr. Affectionaite Husband Jeremian Marston" [Jeremiah Marston]

[Jeremiah Marston was born November 5, 1691 in Hampton, New Hampshire. He was a Captain in the English Colonial Army and was killed at Louisburg May 29, 1745, soon after writing the above letter.]

[ ]


Boston, May 20.

Thursday last his Majesty's Ship Hector, of 40 Guns, arrived here with her Prize, taken in Company with the Princess Mary, in their Passage from England. She is a Ship of about 180 Tons, laden chiefly with Cocoa, but had a considerable Sum of Money on board. The Commander offered the Captors thirty thousand Pounds Sterling for a Ransom. Her Men (about 40 in Number) were committed to Goal the same Day she came in.

The princess Mary sail'd from Nantasket on Wednesday, to join our Fleet off Louisbourg; and Yesterday the Hector sail'd for the same Station.

Last Friday Morning came to Town Mr. Meservy, late Skipper of a Schooner belonging to Marblehead, who, about a Month ago, with another Schooner, was taken near Isle of Sables, by the French Ship that lately ran the Gantlope through out Fleet off Louisbourg. She mounted 32 large Guns, and had 300 Men including 60 Marines. She came out of Brest the 6th of January with a Packet for the Governor of Louisburg, and the Capt. had Orders to deliver it at all Adventures. He had made two Attempts to get in, the last of which was on the 9th Instant, when being within 5 Miles of Louisburg, and hearing the Cannon firing, rightly judged that the Town was besieged, and prudently stood away from that Coast. Two Days after took a fishing Schooner, which he gave to our People to carry them home, in the Room of their own Schooners, which he had sunk. Monsieur gave great Encomiums on the Bravery of the Commander of the Rhode Island Colony Sloop, as he also did on Capt. Rouse, who killed his chief Gunner by a Shot from one of his Chace Guns.

The same Day Capt. Bennet arrived here in a Schooner from Chapeaurouge Bay in Cape Breton, with Dispatches for His Excellency the Governour. He also brought abundance of Letters from Officers in the Fleet and Army, from several of which we have extracted the following Intelligence.

Boston, May 21.

The following Account being more particular than what we had in our last, and taken from authentick Letters, it is thought proper to insert it.

On Friday last arriv'd here Capt. Bennet, and on Saturday Capt. Donahew, both from Chappeaurouge Bay, with Dispatches to his Excellency from Lieut. General Pepperrell, Commodore Warren, &c. by which Vessels we learn, that the General with all the Troops design'd for the present Expedition, set sail from Canso, in good Health and Spirits on the 29th of April last, in Hopes of reaching Chappearouge Bay that Night, but the Wind failing them it was next Morning before they arriv'd, and then discover'd by the Enemy, who made an Alarm by firing a Number of Cannon: They got safe to Anchor, and landed a Number of Men immediately under Cover of Capt. Fletcher, Capt. Saunders, and Capt. Bosch's Guns, where they met a Sally of about 150 Men from the Town, to whom the Boats first landed gave so warm a Reception as to kill 6 or 7, and take as many more Prisoners, amongst whom are some of Distinction, while the others retreated into the Town, without any Loss on our Side; on the same Day they landed about 2,000 of their Men, and the Remainder on the next, and had the whole Army in proper Disposition: during this Time, the Enemy had Burnt several Houses between the Town and the Grand Battery, which Battery was found on the next Day (the 22d Instant) deserted by the Enemy with such Precipitation as to leave the Cannon only spiked up, with the Trunions on, and the Carriages not irreparably damaged, and half a Barrel of Powder which they had not Time to remove - Hereupon Col. Bradstreet was ordered with a Detachment to take Possession of the Battery; on whose March there, a Party sallied from the City and were marching after him, upon Notice of which, Col. Waldo's Regiment being the first in Readiness, was order'd to march so as to get the said Sally betwixt the two Fires of Col. Bradstreet's Party and his Regiment, or cut off their Retreat to the Town. But upon their Appearance the Sally retreated; during this Interval both the Town and Island Battery kept a continual Fire upon the Grand Battery, with Design either to demolish it, or deter our People from possessing it, but this was without Effect; for by 6 o'Clock in the Evening Col. Waldo had Garrison'd it with six Companies of his Regiment, where they sustain'd the Enemy's Fire of Cannon and Mortars all that Night, and the next Day, being the 3d of May, at 10 o'Clock he got one 42 Pounders open, that bore upon the Town, with which he began his Fire on the Enemy in Return, and proceeded as follows, viz.

Days   Guns open'd.  



3d.  1 fir'd on 'em     40 received    146    50
4th. 2 fired  115 received        2    40
5th. fired  

23 received  

 2  29
6th. 3d. & 4th fired 

70 received 

  2  18
7th. fired   44 received   54    13
9th. fired    49 received     59       2
Shots fir'd 
on the
 341 received 


in all 

On the 12th they had 20 of these cannon in firing Order, and altho' but four of them could be brought to do Execution on the Town, the rest will be of vast Service to prevent any Succours from coming in to the Enemy by Sea, as well as to annoy the Island Battery if it could not be taken by the Party designed to attack it; and when they are all drilled, which it was expected would be effected soon, the Battery will consist of 25 forty-two Pounders and two 18 Pounders, having split three of the large ones, which was attended with no worse Consequence than three of four slight Wounds: And notwithstanding the Difficulty they had in transporting the heavy Artillery, from the Badness of the Ground; they had got a Battery of one Mortar and a Number of Cohorns on a Hill, about four hundred Yards from the Town Wall, and another large Mortar on another Hill about the same Distance, from which they have thrown several Shells so successfully into the Town, that it has obliged the Enemy to make two Sallies from the Town towards these Batteries, in which they have been twice repulsed by a Detachment posted there for the support of those Batteries, as yet we have received no Damage save one Man kill'd at one of the Bomb Batteries by some Cannon the Enemy have turned upon it, and two or three slightly wounded; they had also compleated a Fascine Battery before the West Gate, and expected to have eight 22 Pounders mounted that Night to play upon the Town there, in order to force a Breach at that Gate, and are so posted, that by the Help of the grand Battery, and Squadron of Cruisers without, they have now the City blockaded and shut up from any Supplies or Reinforcement, unless it should be relieved by a superior Force from France: During these Transactions there have been several Councils of War, at four of which Commodore Warren was present and assisted, in Consequence of one of which a Summons was sent by a Flag of Truce on the 7th Instant into the City, demanding the Surrender of it, with its Fortresses and territories, together with the Artillery, Arms and Stores of War, the General and Commodore promising in Consequence thereof, that all the Subjects of the French King then in the said City and Territories should be treated with the utmost Humanity, and have their personal Estates secured to them, and have Leave to transport themselves and said Effects to any of the French Kings Dominions in Europe; to which an Answer was demanded at or before five of the Clock that Afternoon; which was accordingly returned, viz. That in as much as the King their Master had intrusted them with the Defense of said Island, they could not hearken to any such Proposal, ('till after the most vigorous Attack) nor had any Answer to make but at the Mouths of their Cannon. - Since this our Troops have been making all necessary Preparations to reduce the City; in which we hear there is a Scarcity of Provisions and that considerable Damage has been done both from the Bomb Batteries and the Royal Battery, from the latter of which it is well known, the third, fourth and fifth Shot fir'd, when into the Citadel thro' the Roof.- We are also informed, that no Vessel from France or the West-Indies had got into the Enemy's Harbour yet this Spring, save one Ship of 14 Guns laden only with Wine and Brandy, which escaped the Commodore's Sight in a Fog, and fell in with Capt. Tyng about six Hours after, who engaged her, but soon lost Sight of her by the Fog and Night; but our Cruizers had taken several Vessels from the West-Indies, and one Ship from France with sixty Thousand Weight of Bread and other Provisions, which must be a great disappointment to the Enemy; and as the Enemy's other Provision Store Ships with the Recruits, and their Canada and West India Trade, and the New Governor of Cape Breton are expected at Louisbourg about this Time, there is the utmost Reason to hope that they will fall into our Hands, and perhaps the French 30 Gun Man of War from Brest, which had three or four Times attempted the Harbour, had been kept off by our Cruizers before his Majesty's Ships appear'd to reinforce them: and in Addition to this, should any Indian Canoe or Boat accidentally get into the City, their Intelligence must be vastly disagreeable, as by that they will know that the Town of St. Peters is burnt by Col. Moulton, the Vessels there bro't away or burnt, and the People that were not taken fled into the Woods without Provisions; that the Fishery at Forechetto is destroy'd, and the same done there, as also at Lawrembecque by our Parties abroad. That the Cattle in the Bay Very which they expected, is destroyed by Donahew, who has burnt a considerable Number of Houses at St. Johns, &c. and sufficiently deterred the Inhabitants that Way from giving them any Manner of Relief.  

We have also the agreeable Intelligence that all our Provision Vessels, &c. were got safe down as far as Canso, altho' in Danger of being taken by the French Man of War, who had taken one, but left her to give Chace to Capt. Rouse, by which Means she made Sail, and got clear, while Rouse spoke with two others, and ordered them in Shore, and convoyed them by Stratagem in the Night into a Harbour, and from thence to Canso safe.

And we hear, that the utmost Harmony subsists, and is likely so to do, between the General and the Commodore, and all the Officers.

We have also Advice that the Island Battery (which a Party had been twice before to attack and returned, not caring to risque the Boats, by Reason of the Weather and Surff of the Sea which rendered it impracticable to land at that Time) was on the 12th Instant at Night, Wind and Weather permitting, to be attempted, for which the necessary Disposition of Men, &c. was ready; of which it is to be hoped we shall soon have a good Account, after which, it is the Opinion of the Officers there, the Dispute will be short, as our Boats already pass from Chappearouge Bay into Louisbourg in the Night frequently, without any Manner of Interruption from any of the Enemy's Batteries.

From Canso likewise we learn, that they had erected the Block-House on the 15th of April, which being the Anniversary of his Royal Highness Prince William, His Majesty's Flag was then hoisted on the same, and the Fort named after his Royal Highness, and that since they had compleated a sod Battery, and mounted 8 Cannon there, for the Security of that Harbour. It is very remarkable that with a hitherto no bad Accident has attended the Expedition, but the contrary, from the Beginning of it to this Time, and we have as yet lost only one Man killed at St. Peters, Capt. Jacques in the Bay of Vert, one of the Bomb Battery, and 18 at Louisbourg, all of which were surprized by Indians, save one at the Battery, and one killed on board Capt. Tyng.

From the Prisoners it is learned, that a Vessel sailed the last of April for the Bay Vert with Arms, &c. for 260 Men, who were come from Canada to join M. Duvivier, in his Design against Annapolis, but it is to be hoped we shall see him here first; and that there was to be a Rendezvous of Indians at Menis to receive their Presents this Month, and consult how to annoy the English Settlements.

A Number of Prisoners, Men, Women and Children, were bro't in by Capt. Donahew, the rest are disposed of on board the Prizes that are hourly expected ...

May 21, 1745

Found on a gravestone in the Newbury Neck Burying Ground, Newbury, Massachusetts:

Capt Daniel Hale died at
Cape Briton may ye 21st 1745
In ye 49th Year of his Age ...

[ ]

Philadelphia, May 23.

... By a Letter from Rhode Island to a Gentleman here, we have Advice, that 9 Sail of French Vessels, with their Commodore, from Martineco, have fallen into the Hands of the Cruizers off cape breton; and that by some Prisoners they learnt that the Old France Fleet was daily expected, which they hoped to give a good Account of. ...

[May 24, 1745[

... The Substance of the Letters of Governor Shirley, and Commodore Warren, referr'd to in the Governor's Message, was to desire an Aid of Soldiers, Ammunition, and Provisions, for securing the Conquest of cape breton. The King's Instructions mentioned in the same Message are general to the Governors of the Northern Colonies, to furnish Commodore Warren, with such Men, Provisions, and Shipping, as he shall have Occasion for, to defend any of the said Colonies, or make Attempts upon the Enemy.

On Wednesday the Assembly came to this Resolution, viz.

"The House resuming the Consideration of the King's Commands signified in the Duke of Newcastle's Letters to the Governors of the Northern Colonies, and also the other Dispatches, Letters and Papers, laid before it by order of the Governor,


"THAT the Sum of Four Thousand Pounds be, and hereby is given to the King's Use, to be paid into the Hands of John Pole, and John Mifflin, of the City of Philadelphia, Merchants, One half Part thereof by the Trustees of the General Loan Office, the other half by the Treasurer, under the Directions of the Honourable George Thomas, Esq; Governor, to be laid out by them the said John Pole, and John Mifflin, in the Purchase of Bread, Beef, Pork, Flour, Wheat or other Grain, or any of them, within this Province, and to be shipped from hence to the King's Service as the Governor shall think most fit."

This was sent up to the GOVERNOR, together with the following Message, viz.

May it Please the GOVERNOR,

WE think it our indispensible Duty, on every Occasion, to shew our Loyalty and hearty Affection towards our King and the present Government; under whom we not only enjoy our Civil and Religious Liberties in their full Extent, but often meet with the peculiar Lenity and Indulgence.

WITH these Sentiments we have taken into Consideration the King's Commands, signified by the Duke of Newcastle's circular Letters to the Governors of the Northern Colonies; and also the other Dispatches, Letters and Papers, which the Governor was pleased to direct should be laid before us: And altho' the peaceable Principles professed by divers Members of the present Assembly, do not permit them to join in raising of Men, or providing Arms and Ammunition, yet we have ever held it our Duty to render Tribute to Caesar; and have, therefore, on the present Occasion, come to the Resolution herewith sent, which, we hope, will give "Publick and Substantial Proof of our Zeal for the King's Service, and the Common Good of our Fellow Subjects," as well as evidence our ready Obedience to his Royal Commands, so far as we can consistently with our religious Principles.

Signed by Order of the House, JOHN KINSEY, Speaker.
24th of the 5th Month, 1745.

 ...May 27. 

Since our last, several Vessels taken from the Enemy by our Cruizers on the Coast of the Isle of Breton, are arrived here, and in them several French and Indian Prisoners; but we have no late Advices from the Army or Fleet.

On Saturday Capt. Donahew sailed for the Fleet before Louisburgh, and this Day Captain Bennet sails for the same Station.

By a Vessel in six Days from Annapolis Royal, we are informed, that that Fortress had been besieged for about a Fortnight by a Body of upwards of a thousand French and Indians, who had dug Trenches, and made Breast-works of Earth to secure them from the Shot of the Fort. They had about 40 Shallops in the Bason, with a great Number of Boats and Canoes, with which they had taken Capt. Poate in one of the Ordnance Schooners, which lately sailed from this Town for Annapolis Royal with Stores; and 'tis greatly feared, that 2 or 3 other Vessels bound to the same Place are fallen into the Enemy's Hands, they not being arrived when the Vessel came away by whom we have these Advices. And we are further informed, that a Party from the Fort being on Goat-Island, were surprized by about 70 Indians, and two Englishmen and five Cape Indians taken Prisoners.

Philadelphia, May 30.

... They knew at Augustine of the cape breton Expedition, Julian having heard it talk'd of at Charlestown, when he was there in the Flag of Truce: They were at first under Apprehensions that 'twas really intended against them, and the Preparations made so far to the Northward that they might have no Notice of it. Provisions were scarce at Augustine, the People not daring to plant any thing without the Walls, and scarcely to sit out, for fear of Gen. Oglethorpe's Indians, who are continually skulking in the Woods round the Town, and firing at every Spaniard they can see; they kill'd and scalp'd 7 during the little Time Capt. Townsend staid there, and so near the Town, that their Guns were often heard in it - the Charlestown Men of War came to the Bar of Augustine, and cruiz'd there some time. ...

June 1, 1745

By His Excellency William Shirley, Esq; ... A proclamation. : Whereas the great and General Court or assembly of this province, upon due consideration of the great importance of the expedition against the French at Cape-Breton, and how necessary it is that the land-forces at the siege of Louisbourgh should be strengthned  and reinforced, have now voted an encouragement for the raising four hundred voluntiers for that service ... Given at the Council-chamber in Boston the first day of June, 1745.

[Source: Boston: : Printed by J. Draper, printer to his excellency the governour and Council., 1745 - ]

Boston, June 3.

On Thursday last arrived here Capt. Smith in a Transport with Expresses in 8 Days from Lieutenant General Pepperel and Commodore Warren; by whom also came Letters from most of the Officers in the present Expedition against Cape Breton, from which we learn, That since the last Account, our Forces had made their Approaches so near the Town of Louisburg, as to have compleated a Fascine Battery of 42 and 18 Pounders within 200 Yards of the West Gate; with which they had annoyed the Enemy's Works, so that they had beat down the Draw-bridge before the Gate, and almost the whole Gate, as also the Parapet of the Demi-Lune Battery fronting that Way, and had got a considerable Breach there, so that they had a fair View into the Town; where though they could observe the Enemy at work in raising a Fascine Battery within the Gate against them, they kept such an incessant firing, and so successfully, they doubted not of soon having such a Breach, as would render that Place easy of Assault. -- We also learn, That they had on the North Side of the Harbour fronting the Magazine and Demi-Lune on that Side, raised another Fascine Battery, and had got some 42 Pounders already there, and began to play them on the Town and Battery the Day that Capt. Smith came away, which being within a Point Blank Shot, must not only damage the said Battery and Town on that Side, but much annoy the Enemy in the Works they are carrying on within to hinder our Approaches at the West Gate; so that the Town was now exposed to five continual Fires, which had beat down many Houses, with the Roofs, &c. of the principal Ones, and in that Way done as much Damage as could be expected. --- We farther have sure Intelligence, That our People in reconnoitering the Harbour, Shores, &c. had discovered a Number of Cannon on the Light-house Side of the Harbour, in the Water just below Low-Water Mark; which it is supposed were designed for a Battery to be built at the Light-house this Year: but upon discovery of our Fleet, tumbled down the Precipice into the Sea, to prevent their falling into our Hands; but that notwithstanding they were exposed to the Island-Battery, our People had weighed and got up most of them; for the Security of which and the building a Fascine Battery there, there was a proper Detachment posted: but to prevent the Recovery of these Cannon the Enemy had sallied from the Town, and about 100 of them in Boats landed on the Light-house Point, who were no sooner on Shore, but a Party of ours got betwixt them and their Boats, so that they flew immediately to the Woods for Shelter, their Return to the Town being impossible; one of those was taken Prisoner, who proved to be a Seaman belonging to a Snow from France, that got into the Harbour in a Fog, undiscovered by our Cruizers, from whom they got Intelligence, that an Armament was coming from Brest to reinforce that Place, and proceed to Annapolis, consisting of 3 Men of War, a 70 Gun Ship, two 56 Guns, and two Company Ships of 36 Guns each. --- And we have further certain Accounts, That on the 18th ult. the Mermaid, Capt. Douglass, a 40 Gun Ship, and the Shirley Galley. Capt. Rouse, one of our Cruizers, fell in with a French Man of War, and engaged her, the former Broadside and Broadside; and the latter being too small to lay along-side, and going well, annoy'd her astern, or ahead, or on the Quarter, as he could best; and as she proved a Ship of Force, they knowing how the Commodore bore of them, fought and sail'd till they fell in with him and the Fleet; but Night coming on, it was 9 o'Clock before the Commodore got along-side near enough to engage, when after two or three Broadsides she struck and ask'd for Quarters, and was the next Day secured; she is called the Vigilant, a new Ship, never having been at Sea before, of 64 Guns, and 560 Men, and was commanded by the Marquis du Mainsonsort; but the Command of her is now given by the Commodore to Capt. Douglass, who so gallantly engag'd her in the Mermaid, and the Command of the Mermaid to Mr. Montague. It is unknown of what Consequence the Caption of this Ship is, as she proves to be laden with Warlike Stores of all Sorts for the supporting a Siege, reinforcing their Fortifications, and the supplying of the Indians, amongst which are a great Number of heavy Cannon, with their Materials, besides Small-Arms, Bomb-Shells, Cohorns, &c. even down to an Indian Hatchet; and exclusive of the Ship's Provision, 1000 Half-Barrels of Gunpowder; 'tis also said, she has on board 3 Years Pay, and all the Cloathing for the Garrisons at Cape Breton and Canada; and as there is a good look-out for the Remainder of those Ships, 'tis not doubted but they will meet the same Fate. The Vigilant, in her Passage from France, had taken two large Ships from S. Carolina, laden with Rice for London, which were also expected soon after them, they having parted with them but a few Days before. After the Ship was taken, she was with a great Number of Flags of all Sorts, in Procession towed across the Entrance of the Harbour by the Mermaid, in View of the Town, into Chappeaurouge Bay; and as the Enemy's Dependance must have been on the Arrival of these Ships, seeing of their Commodore taken must intimidate them much: There is a Person of Distinction on board, but whether it be a new Governor, or M. Duvivier in Disguise, was not discovered when Capt. Smith came away. -- We farther have certain Intelligence, that the Princess Mary, Capt. Edwards, had joined the Fleet the Day of Capt. Smith's Departure; and that he also met the Hector, Capt. Cornwall, off Forchette, about 4 Leagues from Chappeaurouge, the next Day, bound down along with a fair Wind; so that the Fleet consists now of the Superbe and Princess Mary, of 60 Guns each, the Mermaid, Launceston, Eltham, and Hector, of 40 Guns each, the Bien Amie, 24 Guns, and three 20 Gun Ships, three Snows of 20 Guns, one Brig. and the Rhode Island and Connecticut Colony Sloops, all well manned and fitted; which it is not to be supposed any Force will come from France equal to this Year; besides we hear the Commodore expects also three other Ships of War to join him from Newfoundland; which, with the Ships expected to Annapolis, Piscataqua, &c. with Stores, it is not doubted will protect our Northern Colonies from any Invasion this Year. --- We learn further, That the Fluxes that had got amongst our People were over. --- That the Army was in a general good Health, and high Spirits. --- That since the last Account, we had lost but two Men killed at one of our Batteries, and one wounded with the Loss of a Leg. --- That the Lieut. General and Commodore had determined upon Measures of prosecuting (as soon as Affairs were in a proper Disposition for that Purpose) some more vigorous Attack, of which we hope shortly to have a good Account. --- That two of the Men of War and Capt. Snelling have taken in one of the Eastern Harbours a Ship from France laden with Stores and Provisions, with 27 Men; and the Rhode Island Sloop has taken a Brig. from France, laden with Provisions, &c. both which Vessels confirm the Account of an Armament coming from Brest.

By the Way of Piscataqua we hear, That three Sail of Men of War are arrived at Newfoundland from England, bound to join Commodore Warren at Cape Breton; when they arrive, 'tis thought he will be an Over-match for any French Ships that can come to the relief of Louisburg.

A few Days since a Billander, well manned and armed, was sent by this Government to the Relief of Annapolis Royal, besieged by the French and Indians; but Yesterday we had the agreeable News, by a Schooner from that Place, that about ten Days ago the Enemy had raised the Siege, and were drawn off. We are likewise informed, that Capt. Bastide, his Majesty's chief Engineer in Nova Scotia, with some Gunners, were gone from Annapolis Royal, to the Army before Louisburg.

Yesterday Capt. Ingersol, in a Privateer belonging to this Town, arrived at Salem, with a large French Sugar Ship, taken in Company with Capt. Morris of Rhode Island ...

New York, June 3.

Friday last arrived two of our Privateers from a cruize, viz. the Sloop Clinton, Capt. Seymour, and the Sloop Mary Anne, late Capt. Tucker, now Captain Leonard; and brought in with them a French Prize Ship of about 200 Tons, which they took the 7th of May last, off Capt St. Anthony, on her Passage from Port Louis, bound to the Havanna for Convoy to Old France. By Invoice her Cargo consists of 260 Hhds. of brown Sugar, 22,000 Weight of Indigo, 30 Serons of Cocoa, and 15 Bales of Cotton. The Day before this Prize was taken, they fell in with a large Spanish Ship of 36 Guns, and full of Men, bound also to the Havanna. The Clinton coming up first with her, engaged her for some Time alone, when she received several Shot between Wind and Water; and having 4 Foot Water in her Hold, was obliged to sheer off to stop her Leaks: Night coming on, they lay by till Morning, and then began afresh; they continued very warmly till past 10 o'Clock, when the Clinton was much disabled, and received from her Consort the melancholy News of C. Tucker and two of his Men being shot: At that Instant the Prize Ship appeared in Sight, and all their Strength being near exhausted, they left the Spaniard, and made after her, which they came up with and took the same Evening. In their Way home they spoke with a Flag of Truce going from the Havanna to South Carolina, who informed them, that the Spanish Ship was arrived there in a shattered Condition, with upwards of 4 Foot Water in her Hold and had lost several of her Men. The Flag of Truce also told them, that Don Pedro was coming with a Ship of 24 Guns, and two other privateers, to cruize on our Coasts. Capt. Tucker was a person of an excellent Disposition, and behaved with undaunted Courage and Resolution to his last Moment; he was justly beloved by his Men, and died much regretted by them all, as well as by every one who had the Pleasure of his Acquaintance.

We hear from Rhode Island, that the French had actually declared War against the States General.
We hear that a Subscription has been lately set on Foot for the advancing a Sum of Money, to be laid out in purchasing a proper Quantity of Provisions for the immediate Supply of the Forces before Louisbourg, in Expectation that the next Assembly will repay what shall be so advanced for the Service of the Common Cause, and the Honour and Credit of the Province; and that upwards of a 1000 £. was immediately subscribed: The Gentlemen appointed for that Purpose, will attend at Mr. De Joncourt's, at 3 o'Clock next Wednesday Afternoon, to receive the Subscriptions of such other Gentlemen as are inclinable to promote the present Undertaking.

Philadelphia, June 6, 1745.

As the cape breton Expedition is at present the Subject of most Conversations, we hope the following Draught (rough as it is, for want of good Engravers here) will be acceptable to our Readers; as it may serve to give them an Idea of the Strength and Situation of the Town now besieged by our Forces, and render the News we receive from thence more intelligible. PLAN of the Town and Harbour of LOUISBURGH.

1. The Island Battery, at the Mouth of the Harbour, mounting 34 Guns, Pounders. This Battery can rake Ships fore and aft before they come to the Harbour's Mouth, and take them in the Side as they are passing in.

2. The Grand Battery, of 36 Forty two Pounders, planted right against the Mouth of the Harbour, and can rake Ships fore and aft as they enter.

3. The Town N. East Battery, which mounts 18 Twenty four Pounders on two Faces, which can play on the Ships as soon as they have entered the Harbour.

4. The Circular Battery, which mounts 16 Twenty four Pounders, stands on high Ground, and overlooks all the Works. This Battery can also gaul Ships, as soon as they enter the Harbour.

5. Three Flanks, mounting 2 Eighteen Pounders each.

6. A small Battery, which mounts 8 Nine Pounders. All these Guns command any Ship in the Harbour.

7. The Fort o Citadel, fortified distinctly from the Town, in which the Governor lives.

8. A Rock, called the Barrel.

T The Center of Town. 

L The light House.

Every Bastion of the Town Wall has Embrasures or Ports for a Number of Guns to defend the Land Side.
The black Strokes drawn from the several Batteries, shew the Lines in which the Shot may be directed.
cape breton Island, on which Louisburgh is built, lies on South of the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and commands the Entrance into that River, and the Country of Canada. It is reckoned 140 Leagues in Circus, full of fine Bays and Harbours, extreamly convenient for Fishing Stages. It was reckoned a Part of Nova Scotia. For the Importance of this Place see our Gazette, No. 858. As soon as the French King had begun the present unjust War against the English, the People of Louisburgh attacked the New England Town of Canso, consisting of about 150 Houses and a Fort, took it, burnt it to the Ground, and carried away the People, Men, Women and Children, Prisoners. They then laid Siege to Annapolis Royal, and would have taken it, if seasonable Assistance had not been sent from Boston. Mr. Duvivier went home to France last Fall for more Soldiers, &c. to renew that Attempt, and for Stores for Privateers, of which they proposed to fit out a great Number this summer, being the last Year unprovided: Yet one of their Cruisers only, took 4 Sail in a few Days, off our Capes, to a very considerable Value. What might we have expected from a dozen Sail, making each 3 or 4 Cruises a Year? They boasted that during the War they should have no Occasion to cut Fire Wood, for that the Jackstaves of English Vessels would be a Supply sufficient. It is therefore in their own Necessary Defence, as well as that of all the other British Colonies, that the People of New England have undertaken the present Expedition against that Place, to which may the GOD OF HOSTS grant Success. Amen.

Boston, June 10.

... We are raising Men daily in order to reinforce the Army at cape breton, besides Seamen to Man the Vigilant Prize.

Last Friday began the drawing of the Government's Lottery at Faneuil Hall.

No Intelligence from cape breton since our last, tho' Hourly expected.

His Excellency Gov. Morris having, on the 24th of May last, laid before the House of Representatives of New Jersey, some important Dispatches he had received from Governor Shirley at Boston, and from Commodore Warren at cape breton, which he recommended to their Consideration; they thereupon unanimously Resolved, That there be a Bill prepared for applying immediately the Sum of Two Thousand Pounds, of the Interest Money now in the Treasury, for His Majesty's Service, to be transmitted to his Excellency Governor Shirley in Provisions for the Use of His Majesty's Subjects at Cape-Breton.

A List of the Naval Force now in his Majesty's Service on the Expedition against cape breton.

His Majesty's Ships. Guns.
The Superbe, Commodore WARREN, 60
The Princess Mary, Capt. Edwards,                 60
The Vigilant Prize, Capt. Douglass                  64
The Mermaid, Capt. Montague                        40
The Eltham, Capt. Philip Durrel,                     40
The Hector, Capt. Cornwall,                             40
The Launceston, Capt. Terrel,                          40
The Bien Aime, Capt. Gayton,                         24
And 3 more expected soon from England.

In the Pay of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, Three Thousand Land Troops, with arms, Ammunition, Provision, &c.

His Majesty's Ships.      Guns.
The Ship Massachusetts, Capt. Tyng,                20
The Ship Caesar, Capt. Snelling                        20
The Shirley Galley, Capt. Rouse,                        20
The Prince of Orange, Capt. Smethurst,            16
The Brig. Boston Packet, Capt. Fletcher,           16
A Sloop, Capt. Donahew,                                     12
Ditto, Capt. Saunders,                                           8
Ditto, Capt. Bosch,                                                 8
And near 100 Sail of Transports.
Also hired of the Rhode Island Merchants,
A Ship, Capt. Griffin,                                            20
And a Snow, Capt. Thompson,                              16

In the Pay of the Colony of Connecticut, their Proportion of Troops, 500 Men, with Arms, Ammunition, Transports, &c. and their Colony Sloop, of 16 Guns.
In the Pay of the Province of New Hampshire, their Proportion of Troops, 350 Men, with Arms, Ammunition, Provisions, Transports, &c. and their Province Sloop.
In the Pay of Rhode Island, no Soldiers, but their Colony Sloop, of 16 Guns and 80 Men.

Philadelphia, June 13.

By Capt. Rees from Antigua, there is Advice, that four of the largest of the French Squadron were cruizing to the Windward of Barbadoes, to intercept a large Fleet of Merchantmen bound thither under the Convoy of Admiral Medley, who 'tis said, left England with 6 Ships of the Line. Ten Sail of Merchantmen of Force, bound to Jamaica, which came away without the Convoy, were arrived at Antigua in 30 Days from Plymouth; by whom they have an Account, that one Ship of 70 Guns, one of 60 and one of 50, under Command of Commodore Lee, were bound to Antigua directly, to reinforce Commodore Knowles, and were not to take any of the Trade under their Convoy. 'Tis said, that as soon as these Ships are joined, they are to join Admiral Medley, lest he should be attacked by the whole French Squadron under Monsieur Caylus, which consists of nine Sail viz.

L'Esperance, 74 Guns,  650 Men.
Le Northumberland,  70      600
Le Trident,                           64                   550
Le Serieux,                          64                   550
Le Diamant,                        56                   500
L'Aquillon,                         44                    450

A frigate of 36 Guns, and two of 30, of 300 Men each. One Fireship and Bomb, fitted since they came to Martineco.

We hear farther from Antigua, that two Privateers of the Enemy have been taken and brought in there lately by one of our Men of War. That the Schooner Charming Peggy, Capt. Strawbridge of this Place, bound to Antigua, was taken within Sight of the Island, and carried to Guadaloup, by a French Privateer, who the Day before had taken a large Ship bound from Bristol to St. Kitts, and put some Men on board her to carry her in; but they attempting to light a Fire by shooting the Wads of their Pistols into a Parcel of Oakum, the Straw in some Creats of Earthen Ware took Fire, and got to such a Head, that they could not extinguish it, and the Ship with a very valuable Cargo was burnt. Capt. Strawbridge is come home with Capt. Rees.

By a Letter from London of the 28th of March, we learn that the Parliament proceeds vigorously in the Enquiry into the Conduct of the Fleet in the Mediterranean: That they had Resolved to bring in a Bill to grant a Sum of Money to any Person or Persons who shall discover N. West Passage: And that they show a greater Disposition for regulating and advancing Trade, than has been seen for some Years past.

By Capt. Meas from Jamaica, we have Advice, that on the tenth of last Month, Capt. Renton in one of our Men of War brought into Port Royal a large Spanish Register Ship, valued at 100,000 £. Sterling: And that the Drake Sloop of War brought in also a French Privateer Sloop, which had done considerable Damage at the East End of the Island.

We hear farther, that a Swedish Ship, bound from Cadiz to La Vera Cruz, with a Cargo that cost 300,000 Ps. of 8, also a large Spanish Sloop with Rum, Molasses and Cocoa, and a Schooner from Caraccas, with Cocoa and Indigo, were carried into Jamaica by Capt. Rolans, in the Privateer Sloop Henry, of Barbados: The Cargo of the Swedish Ship was condemn'd, but the Freight ordered to be paid to the Captain, who was dismiss'd with his Ship ...

[Surrender Day]

The Journal of the Taking of Louisbourg
The regiment from Connecticut at New London came down,
And a battalion drew up in the middle of the town.
And articles they were read off at the head of all the men,
Which were well pleasing un to us when we came to hear them.

Saint George's colours we did hoist, upon the land so high,
Which caused the French foes to look upon us very shy.
They being so much in surprise, and in such a dismal fright,
That they ne'er dar'd to sally out to give us a field fight.

At the light house we did erect, A fascine battery,
And fired briskly with our guns, right into the city.
We hove our bombs and cannon shot right in the island fort,
And made the Frenchmen quit the spot, for we show'd 'em great sport.

Then a flag of truce came out whilst we were encamp'd at the bay
And desir'd a cessation of arms until the very next day.
To which our generals did consent and return'd the flag again,
And demanded of them answer by the next day at noon.

Then a flag of truce came out at noon, which was the prefix'd time,
With these proposals they brought out, "The city would resign,
If they might have the plunder all, and be sent home to France,
Then the city gates they'd open, and our men might advance.

To which our generals did consent, with out the least delay,
And so drew off part of our troops and bravely march'd away.
With beat of drums and colours high, they bravely marched in,
And so the day was ended in drinking healths to George our King.

[Source: -  By L.G [Soldier from Connecticut]]


New-England's Ebenezer; or, Hitherto the Lord hath helped us. : Being a brief and plain memorial of the rise, progress, and success of His Majesty's forces in the late expedition against Cape-Breton, under the conduct and command of the Honourable Lieutenant-General Pepperrell by land, and the Honourable Commodore Warren by sea: which island, with it's strong holds and town of Louisbourg thereon, was delivered up unto them the 17th. day of June, 1745. : With a suitable improvement. Boston: : Printed for, and sold by Benjamin Gray, at the north side of the Dock-Market. [Printed by S. Kneeland and T. Green?], 1745.


"The following private note was sent from Boston to Pepperrell, whilst at Louisbourg, and among his papers.

' You was made general, being a popular man, most likely to raise soldiers soonest. The expedition was calculated to Establish Sh—, and make his creature W. governor of Cape-Breton, which is to be a place of refuge to him from his creditors.— Beware of snakes in the grass, and mark their hissing !' "

[The Monthly Visitor, and New Family Magazine, By a Society of Gentlemen, Volume 15 (London: T. Hurst, 1802),  p. 168] -

July, 1745

[June 17, 1745]

The Importance of Cape Breton to the British, nation. - Page 356

Letter from one of the principal engineers before Cape Breton. - Page 357

Hymn to VICTORY on the taking of Cape Breton. - Page 357

Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 15, July, 1745  [Source: ]


[June 17, 1745]

... But the great item of domestic intelligence, which confronts us under various forms in the pages of this Magazine, is the siege and capture of Louisburg, and the reduction of Cape Breton to the obedience of the British crown,--an acquisition for which his Majesty was so largely indebted to the military skill of Sir William Pepperell, and the courage of the New England troops, that we should naturally expect to find the exploit narrated at length in a contemporary Boston magazine. ....  To this succeeds "A particular Account of the Siege and Surrender of Louisburgh, on the 17th of June, 1745." The resources of the pictorial art are called in to assist the popular conception of the great event, and we are treated on page 271 to a rude wood-cut, representing the "Town and Harbour of Louisburgh," accompanied by "Certain Particulars of the Blockade and Distress of the Enemy." Still farther on appears "The Declaration of His Excellency, William Shirley, Esq., Captain General and Governour in Chief of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, to the Garrison at Louisburgh." ....

Boston, June 17.

On the 15th Instant, a Schooner, ---- Giddings, Master, arrived in 10 Days from Cape Breton, with Expresses from Lieutenant General Pepperell and Commodore Warren, for his Excellency the Governor, which bring Advice, that a very close Blockade of Louisbourg is continued by Land and Sea, to the great Distress of the Enemy, who from the Intelligence gained from our Prisoners and other Circumstances, are judged to be short of Provisions and Ammunition; That in Particular, a Party of our Scouts fell in with a Party of 200 of the Enemy in the Woods, whom after an obstinate Fight of 4 Hours, they defeated in the Close of the Evening, after having kill'd upwards of 40 of em, and took all their Knapsacks that Night, and several Prisoners the next Day, and seven of their Shallops; and that in other Skirmishes out Troops have constantly had the Advantage of the Enemy, of whom they have kill'd and taken man. -- That they have erected a considerable Battery, consisting partly of the New York Cannon, and other Cannon of the Enemy's of the same Weight, carrying 18 Pound Shot, on the Light House Point, which will serve both to annoy the Island Battery, and defend the Entrance of the Harbour against any Ships; so that with the Royal Battery, we have now a superior Strength of Batteries of their Ships. --- Also, that since our last Advices, a Party of between 3 and 400 of our Land Forces in Boats, made an Attempt to Surprize the Island Battery by Night, but being discovered by the Enemy, and the Surf of the Sea running high, which made their Landing very difficult, they were repulsed with the Loss of about 170 Men, who were partly drown'd, and partly kill'd and taken by the Enemy; but that it was expected an Attack would soon be made upon it by our Ships, and from our new Battery on the Light-house Point, which we have the greatest Reason to hope will succeed. -- That our Ships had taken a Brigt. from Nantz laden with Provisions, and a large Sloop laden with Bread, Flour, Pease, &c. from Canada, both bound for Louisbourg; by the latter of which we learn, that the French of Canada had heard some Reports of the Expedition against Cape Breton from the Savages only, which they wholly slighted; and we are assured that no Vessel has got into the Enemy's Harbour, besides the two formerly mentioned, one laden with Wine and Brandy, the other, whose Cargo we can't learn. That Mr. Bastide chief Engineer of Nova Scotia, with a Master Smith (who is also a good Artillery Officer) and two Gunners, was arriv'd at Canso in his Way to the Camp before Louisburg; and that Commodore Warren, upon receiving Advice of the Siege of Annapolis Royal by the French and Indians, from our Government (and not hearing that it was raised) had sent the Shirley Galley, Capt. Rouse, the Massachusetts Frigate, Capt. Tyng, and the Fame, Capt. Thomson, all 20 Gun Ships, and two Schooners to the Assistance of the Garrison there.

We also hear, that the same Letters inform, that the Blockade by Sea is carried on by the help of Sloops, Schooners and Boats, in such a Manner that a Boat cannot escape into the Harbour in the thickest Fog: That Colds are pretty frequent among the Land Forces, but none dangerously ill, and very few kill'd or wounded among 'em except those upon the before mentioned Attempt on the Island Battery: That our Forces are in good Spirits: A good Harmony subsists between the General and Commodore; and that they are in general Expectation of being Masters of Louisburg in a short Time.

Recruits are raising here with the utmost Diligence to reinforce our Troops, as also Seamen to supply the Place of those which are taken from our other Ships to man the Vigilant; and the Marquis de Fort Maison, with the French officers and late Crew of that Ship are soon expected here.

[June 17, 1745]

"He commanded a company at ye Reduction of Louisbourg, June 17, 1745." 

[Capt. Palmer Goulding [Sen.] ; d. at Holden, Feb. 11; a. 75. - Massachusetts Epitaphs: Worcester Common Cemetery's Grave Inscriptions - ]

June 17, 1745

Account of the taking of Cape Breton.

1745 17th June


 Cape Breton was taken under ye Command of Lieutenant General Pepperrell by Land and Commodore Warren by sea ; A city Exceeding Strong; According to the French Accounts after the English had taken it, was found 9000 Shot & 600 Bombs, 148 ports in the Walls, 83 Cannon, 5 fine Brass Mortars & 1 Iron one.

[William Tudor, editor, Deacon Tddor's Diary, OR "MEMORANDOMS FROM 1709, &C., By JOHN TUDOR, TO 1775 & 1778, 1780 AND TO '93." A RECORD OF MORE OR LESS IMPORTANT EVENTS IN BOSTON, FROM 1732 TO 1793, BY AN EYE WITNESS. (Boston, Wallace Spooner, 1896), p. 4. See ]


[Post June 17, 1745]

SUPPLEMENT to the Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 868.

The following being a more particular and methodical Account of the Siege and Surrender of Louisburg, than any hitherto published, we now give it to our Readers.

By Dispatches brought from General PEPPEREL and Commodore WARREN, by Capt. Bennet, as was formerly mention'd, we were advis'd, that on the 17th of last Month, the Enemy surrender'd to His Majesty the City of Louisburg, and the whole Island of Cape Breton, upon the following Terms, viz. "That they should march out of the City with their Arms and the other Honours of War, and carry off all their personal Effects, and to be transported to France at His Majesty's Expence." - The Number of the Enemy found in the City after the Surrender, were about 600 regular Troops, French and Swiss, and according to the best Accounts that could be got before the Express came away, about 1400 other effective Men under Arms, Inhabitants of the City and other Settlements on the Island, from whence the Enemy had drawn in about 900 to strengthen the Garrison, upon the Discovery of our Cruizers sent before the Embarkation of the Troops, to cruize constantly off the Harbour, to prevent any early Vessels from getting into it with Provisions or Intelligence, and which were discover'd, notwithstanding their Orders to cruise out of Sight of the City: This Discovery was probably occasion'd by the long Stay of our Troops at Canso, which lies about 20 Leagues from Louisburg, where they were detain'd about 3 Weeks, and hindred from landing in Chapeaurouge Bay, by the great Quantities of Ice which are always found on that Coast in the Spring, and which happen'd to continue very late this Year. What greatly facilitated this Conquest, was probably the Conduct and Bravery of our Troops at their first Landing, when a Party of the Enemy of about 100, came out of the City to oppose 'em, with Capt. Morepang, accounted their Hero, at their Head; but a Party of our Men Landing under the Fire of some of our smaller Cruizers, row'd on Shore very briskly in their Whale-Boats, and so resolutely march'd up and attack'd the Enemy, that they kill'd 8 on the Spot, wounded several others, & took 10 Prisoners, among whom was Mr. Boullarderie, who was formerly a captain of Foot in France, an Officer of great Bravery, and forc'd Mr. Morpang to make a very precipitate Retreat with the rest into the City. This was done without the Loss of a Man on our Side; and in this their first Action our Men took so good Aim, that one of the Slain was found with 5 Balls lodg'd in his Breast. The good Behaviour of our Troops on this Occasion, and their March towards the City, struck such a Terror into the Enemy, that they quitted their Grand Battery, lying at the Bottom of the Harbour, and right against the Mouth of it, having in it 28 Cannon of 42 Pound Shot each, spik'd up (the other Cannon belonging to that Battery having been carry'd into the City sometime before.) This Battery, of which our Troops had thus possess'd themselves (the Guns found in it being soon unspik'd) was of great Importance to them; for thereby they had obtain'd in a great Measure the Command of the Harbour, and were capable of annoying the City with some of their own Cannon. Our Troops then rais'd a Battery against the West Gate of the City, according to the Plan of Operations projected here before their Departure, and from time to time made such Advance, notwithstanding the furious Fire they frequently sustain'd from the Enemy's Works, under the Direction of an Engineer of great Repute, that for a very considerable Time before the Surrender, they were within Musket-shot of 'em, and being generally good Marks-Men, pick'd off the Enemy with their Small Arms from their Walls and in the City, in such a Manner, that at last they could not shew their Heads without the greatest Risque of their Lives: Our Troops also erected a Battery between the West Gate and the Grand Battery, which was of Service, not only to annoy the City in general, but also to drive the Enemy from a Work which they had rais'd within the Walls over-against the Breach made at the West Gate; and by the Fire from these Batteries the West Gate was demolished, and a practicable Breach made there as our Troops and the Enemy judg'd, the Circular Battery ruin'd, and all the Guns in it, except three, dismounted; and the whole City was so exceedingly batter'd, that all the Buildings in general were rendered scarce habitable, there having been thrown into it from these Batteries, according to the French Account (it being impossible for our People, as one of the principal Officers in the Train of Artillery writes, to keep an exact Account) 9000 Shot, and 600 Bombs; and as the Island Battery, which stands on a Rock in the Sea at the Harbour's Mouth, and guards the Entrance of it (which a Party of our Men had in vain attempted to take by Storm, in their Whale-Boats) was a Place of great Consequence, our Troops rais'd a Battery on the opposite Shore near the Enemy's Light House, which considering the Steepness and Difficulty of the Ground, over which the Artillery was carry'd, and the short Time wherein it was made, was a very extraordinary One, and from which the Execution done by our Cannon and Mortars was so great, that the first Day's Fire made the Enemy forsake their Guns, and drove several of 'em into the Sea for Shelter.---

While the General with the Land Forces was thus employed on Shore the Commodore with his Squadron was as vigilant and successful at Sea, for nothing escaped 'em except two Brigantines, which by thick foggy Weather, frequent on these Coasts, got into the Harbour with some small Supplies, and they had the good Fortune to take a 64 Gun Ship, bound from France to Louisburg, with Stores for the Garrison. This Ship fell in first with the Mermaid, Capt. Douglass, who attacked her, but finding her too heavy for him, very directly led her down to the Commodore, who immediately came up and engaged her Yard Arm and Yard Arm, and being surrounded with the rest of the Squadron, she was taken with very little Loss on our Side, the Commodore who was in the hottest of the Action not having lost a Man, and without any great Loss of Men on the Side of the French. - Two Days before the Parley, the Commodore, after a Consultation had with his Officers, determined to enter the Harbour with his Ships, having some time before settled the Line of Battle. - But the Land-Forces, to return to them, having repulsed every Party that sally'd out against 'em, and having gain'd Advantages in divers Skirmishes on the Island, and a Party of our Scouts having had an obstinate Fight for four Hours with a larger Party of the Enemy, French and Indians, wherein our Men prevail'd, and finally routed 'em, killing about 40 on the Spot and taking divers Prisoners; and on the 16th our Battery raised against the Island Battery having made the severe Fire beforementioned, and at the same time a most fierce Fire having been made from our other Batteries upon the City, the Enemy were distressed to that Degree that they could not shew their Heads, not stir from their covered Ways, and having but 44 Barrels of Powder left in their Magazine within the City, they beat a Parley, and thereupon sent out a Flag of Truce, which came to the Camp just after the General and Commodore had come to a Resolution to make a general Assault by Land and Sea the Day following, and an Agreement to surrender the City on the Terms aforemention'd was soon made, and happily for both Parties; for although considering our Strength by Sea and Land, and the Gallantry of our Countrymen, of which the Enemy had had large Experience, the Issue of the General Assault must in all probability have been in our Favour, yet many Lives must have been lost on both Sides. -- Thus ended this Expedition, to the perpetual Honour of His Majesty's American Arms, with the Loss in the whole at Land of about 100 Men on our Side, and of the Enemy, by their own Confession, 87 Men within the Walls, and with the Loss at Sea of one Ship only, the Prince of Orange Snow, belonging to this province, lost, at it is supposed, in a Storm as she was cruizing off the Harbour's Mouth, whereby there are unfortunately made about 50 disconsolate Widows in one of our Fishing Towns, and without Damage to any of His Majesty's Ships of War, which after the Capitulation entered the Harbour without having ever fir'd, or had Occasion to fire a Shot at any of the Enemy's Works.

By this happy Success of His majesty's Arms, a very great Addition is made to the Strength and Security of all his Dominions on this Continent, and the Dangers attending the Navigation of his Subjects in these Seas, are very much lessen'd, and that great Source of Wealth and Naval Power, the Cod-Fishery, may with much Ease be preserv'd to the English, from whom the Enemy immediately after their Declaration of the present War, began to take it with the utmost Violence, a Party of about 900 French and Indians being for that End sent out by Mr. Duquesnel, late Governor, of Louisburg, to destroy the Settlements at Canso, one of the principal Seats of the English Fishery; who accordingly took and burnt 'em, not leaving a House standing, and made the Garrison, and all the Inhabitants, Prisoners of War: And as the Reduction of this important Fortress, is the Consequence of an Expedition form'd, set on Foot and conducted by our Governor, with the most remarkable Application, Secrecy, Prudence and Dispatch (the first Inlistment being made on the 2d of February, and the Troops having embark'd and sail'd for Canso by the 24th of March) and entred into and carried on at first wholly by this Province, and afterwards with the Aid of some of the neighbouring Colonies (under the general Command given by his Excellency) with the most surprizing Spirit, Alacrity and Zeal, for the Common Cause, and supported by the Ships of War sent (most of 'em) upon his Excellency's Application to his Majesty for that Purpose) the Joy in this Province occasioned by it was very great and universal, and with the greatest Reason still continues to be so; and we hope, accompany'd with a due Sense of the Favour of Heaven most plainly and wonderfully vouchsafed unto us during the whole Prosecution of this Enterprize; for unto Almighty GOD, who loves to shew himself, and in an eminent Manner take Part with Right and Justice against those mighty Oppressors of the Earth, who like an overflowing Flood would bear down all before 'em, be ascrib'd this great and happy Conquest.

... Extract of a Letter from an Officer of Note,
dated Louisbourg, June 18, 1745.

Yesterday, after a tedious Siege of 7 Weeks, on a Capitulation agreed on, a large Detachment of our Troops entered this City, and all the Army are preparing to take their Posts accordingly. The whole Loss we have sustained by the Enemy and Sickness, will not exceed 120 Men; a Number inconsiderable in proportion to the Hazard, and the Consequence of the Acquisition. The Enemy acknowledge we killed of them within the Walls during the Siege, 87 Men, and out of two Parties, one that sallied out to oppose our Landing, the other to cut off a Guard posted near the Light House, a yet larger Number. The whole Town is so wreck'd by our Cannon and Bombs, that scarce 3 Houses in it are at their Hour tenantable. The great Fire we made on the 16th Instant, effected our Wishes. The Strength of this City vastly exceeds my Expectation. Had the Enemy's Ammunition held out, or any Naval Force under Cover of the Fogs, been able to have entered, and afforded Succour to the Besieged, we should have had very little Room to have expected so happy an Issue. The Capitulation was absolutely necessary, and well timed; for had the Resolutions which were taken a very few Hours before to make a general Attack by Land and Sea, and which we were with all Diligence preparing for, by making Ladders, Fascines, &c. and fixing up Shallops and Whale-boats, we should have greatly suffered; but happy was it for my Countrymen, the Enemy beat a Parley, sent out a Flag, and a speedy Agreement followed, or I really think we must have lost more than Half our Army. At all Events the Conquest is secure by an Entry of about 2000 English Troops, --- 11 Men of War, and all our Transports, into this Harbour, and the Embarkation of this and the Island Battery Garrisons, consisting of about 550 Men, French and Swiss, aboard the several King's Ships. There yet remains in this City about 1500 Men, Youths, called Soldiers, which must needs be sent to Boston, where, or in it Neighbourhood, hope they'll become good Settlers. 'Tis determined that they embark on Monday next at farthest ...

... A Letter from one of the Chaplains in the Army,
dated Louisburg, June 19.

GOD in his infinite kind Providence now gives me the Pleasure to date a Letter to you at and in the City of Louisburg. Last Saturday the Commodore was on Shore, and he with; the Land Council of War had determined as soon as the Wind would permit, to make a general Attack; but God, who does all Things well, in his great Goodness prevented us; for the council had but just broke up, and before the Gentlemen were dispersed, there came a Flag of Truce from the City, desiring that there might be a Cessation of arms till they in the City could get together and conclude upon Articles of Capitulation. It was allowed them till the next Morning at 8 o'Clock, at which time they sent us Articles which we thought not proper in any ways to agree to, and too tedious now to relate. Then we proposed to them Terms which follow; That they should resign to us the City, with the warlike or Kings Stores, and that they might have all their Personal Estates, and that they should be transported to France in the Ships and Vessels of theirs that were in the Harbour, and that we should furnish them with what more necessary. These Terms were sent into the City, and their Compliance with them returned about 6 o'Clock. Hostages were given by each party capitulation: The next Day the Commodore sent 2 or 3 Companies of Marines to take Possession of the Island Battery, and then came into the Harbour with his Ships, the Wind favouring, and about 6 o'Clock the General and Gentlemen on Shore entered the City, two Regiments of Foot marching before him; at which Time I also came in; and we are now in Possession rejoicing. --- O that we may rejoice with true Thankfulness! The City is, I had like to have said, infinitely, stronger than it was ever represented. - If we had endeavoured to have stormed it, it is very uncertain whether we should have succeeded, in my Opinion; but sure I am, Success would have been attended with the Loss of great Numbers. People are generally pleased with the Terms on which the City was given up; and I think every one has the greatest Reason to rejoice, and thank God that he in his Providence prevented our attempting it by Storm. - All that have been kill'd by the Savages and French on Scouts, those that were killed by and drowned in the unfortunate Attempt on the Island Battery, and those that have been kill'd by the Enemy's small and great Shot from the Town; and lastly, those that have lost their Lives by the unhappy splitting of some of our Cannon, and our large 12 Inch Mortar, does not amount to but about 150. We found, when we came into the City, about 150 of our People taken at the Island Battery. The Time of our Siege, from the time we landed till the City was delivered up to us, was 6 Weeks and 5 Days, We have lost few, very few by Sickness."

As Capt. Bennet arrived in the Night, he first carried the General and Commodore's Dispatches to his excellency, then at Dorchester, and, on his Return, communicated the joyful Tidings to the Hon. Col. Wendell's Company of Militia, then on Duty as a military Watch, who, (not able longer to conceal their Joy) about 4 o'Clock alarmed the Town, by firing their Guns, and beating their Drums, and before five all the Bells in the Town began to ring, and continued ringing most Part of the Day. The Inhabitants thus agreeably surprized, laid aside all Thoughts of Business, and each one seemed to strive to outdo his Neighbour in Expressions of Joy. Many Persons, who were gone to Cambridge to be present at the Commencement, came to Town to rejoice with us, as did many others from the Country, and the Day was spent in firing of Cannon, feasting and drinking of Healths, and in preparing Fire-works, &c. against the Evening. And to add to the Pleasures of the Day, Col. Pollard and his Company of Cadets were under Arms, and made a very fine Appearance. Now the Churl and the Niggard became generous, and even the Poor forgot their Poverty; and in the Evening the whole Town appeared as it were in a Blaze, almost every House being finely illuminated. In some of the principal Streets were a great Variety of Fire-Works, and curious Devices for the Entertainment of the almost numberless Spectators, and in the Fields were several Bonfires for Diversion of the less Polite, besides a large one in the Common, where was a Tent erected, and Plenty of good Liquor for all that would drink. In a Word, never before, upon any Occasion, was observed so universal and unaffected a Joy; nor was there ever seen so many Persons of both Sexes at one Time walking about, as appeared that Evening, the Streets being as light as Day, and the Weather extremely pleasant. And what is very remarkable, no ill Accident happened to any Person, nor was there any of those Disorders committed, which are too common on such Occasions. There has likewise been great Rejoicings at many other Towns, on the glorious Success of his Majesty's Arms.

'Tis said that just as the Express came away, a large Store-ship, bound to Canada, appeared off the Harbour of Louisburg for a Pilot, which was taken and carried in, and by her they had Advice, that she came out of France with several other vessels bound to the same Place.
We hear, that upon the Surrender of the Place, Capt. Montague, Commander of the Mermaid Man of War, was dispatched to England in a Sloop, with the News of the Success.

Several Transports with Troops, and other with Provisions and Stores, lie ready to sail for Cape Breton.
Last Saturday was finished the Drawing of the Government's Lottery.

Philadelphia, June 20.

We hear from Cheltenham, in this County, that on Wednesday, the 12th Instant, Mr. Richard Martin, an eminent Man in that Neighbourhood, unfortunately struck his Heel against a Scythe that lay on the Ground, and wounded himself so that he died in a few Hours.

Capt. Burroughs, who arrived here on Saturday last from Ireland, informs us, that on the 21st of May he met with 3 Sail of English Men of War bound to cape breton, viz. the Sunderland, of 60 Guns, the Canterbury, of 60 Guns, and the Chester, of 50 Guns; each of which Ships had 40 spare Seamen and 40 Soldiers: They had with them a French 26 Gun Ship, which they had taken: she was bound to Newfoundland, to cruize on the Banks. They had Intelligence of the small French Squadron bound to cape breton: and Capt. Burroughs informed the Commodore, that he had been chased 4 Days before by a large black Ship, which was thought to be one of that Squadron. ...

... We hear that the 2000 £. given by the Government of the Jerseys towards the cape breton Expedition, is laid out in good Pork, which is now shipping at Burlington on board a Vessel that will sail for Boston in a few Days. ...

... Letter from an Officer of Note in the Train, dated
Louisburg, June 20. 1745.

Glory to God, and Joy and Happiness to my Country, in the Reduction of this Place, which we are now in Possession of. 'Tis a City vastly beyond all Expectation, for strength and beautiful Fortification; but we have made terrible Havock with our Guns and Bombs, and according to the French Account we have fired Nine thousand Shot, and Six Hundred Bombs into it. It was impossible for us to keep a true Account of the Shot and Bombs, but I verily believe the French Account is true, and there is but one House in the Place but has received Damage. the City was delivered up by capitulation, wherein the Inhabitants were to have their personal Effects, and the Honours of War, and to be transported to France at our Cost, and well off too for such a fine City, which will be an everlasting Honour to my Countrymen. We find here 148 Embrazures in the Walls, 83 Cannon, whereof 6 are English Six-pounders; also 5 fine Brass Mortars, and one Iron-ditto. I have not been to the Island Battery; shall let you know more by the next ...

[June 20, 1745]

... But the great item of domestic intelligence, which confronts us under various forms in the pages of this Magazine, is the siege and capture of Louisburg, and the reduction of Cape Breton to the obedience of the British crown,--an acquisition for which his Majesty was so largely indebted to the military skill of Sir William Pepperell, and the courage of the New England troops, that we should naturally expect to find the exploit narrated at length in a contemporary Boston magazine. ... In contrast to this cool and calculating production, we have next the achievement, as seen from a military point of view, in a "Letter from an Officer of Note in the Train," dated Louisburg, June 20, 1745, who breaks forth thus:--"Glory to God, and Joy and Happiness to my Country in the Reduction of this Place, which we are now possessed of. It's a City vastly beyond all Expectation for Strength and beautiful Fortifications; but we have made terrible Havock with our Guns and Bombs. ... Such a fine City will be an everlasting Honour to my Countrymen."

[Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 5, No. 30, April, 1860 ]

June 21, 1745

 PETER WARREN Esqr. Commander in Chief of all his Majesty's Ships and Vessels employed, and to be employed in North America, to the Northward of Carolina: &c.


WILLIAM PEPPERRELL Esqr. Lieut. General, and Com- mander in Chief of his majesty's Troops, raised in New England, for an Expedition against the French Settlements on the Island of Cape Breton: &c.

To JOSEPH DWIGHT Esqr. Greeting

Whereas by the late happy Success of his Majesty's Arms, the Acquisition of the City, Fortresses, and Port of Louisbourg, with the Territories and Ports adjacent, is made to his Majesty's Dominions: and Whereas there are several Prizes now in this Harbour, taken from his Majesty's Enemies, which have Necessaries on board, suitable for the Support of his Majesty's Subjects here; and Others may be dayly expected.

We do, therefore, judging it for his Majesty's Service, and the good of his Subjects, in the present Exigency, to appoint proper Officers, for the legal Tryal, and Condemnation of said Prizes; Constitute & appoint you, (in Confidence of your Loyalty, Integrity, and good Ability) Judge of the Court of Admiralty, for the port of Louisbourg, and Ports adjacent: Hereby willing and requiring You to take Cognizance of all Prizes that are or shall be brought into said Ports; and cause Judgment relating to same to be made, and Execution thereon done according to Law, and Justice: and generally to do and transact all such Matters as to your said Office do appertain. For which This shall be your sufficient Warrant. Given under our Hands and Seals, at Louisbourg, the twentyeth Day of June, in the Nineteenth Year, of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord, George the Second of Great Brittain, France and Ireland, King &c. Annoq; Domini 1745.


By Command of their Honours.                                                                                                        Wm PEPPERRELL.

                                      B: GREEN Secry


Louisbourg June 21st, 1745. The Honble. Joseph Dwight Esqr. appeared and took the Oaths appointed by Act of parliament & Oaths of Office and subscribed the Test of Declaration.

                                      Before us

                                                    P WARREN

                                                                       & Wm PEPPERRELL

[Colonial Society of Massachusetts, Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts Volume 5, April 1898 (Published by The Society: 1902), p. 320.


Boston, June 24.

Since our last upwards of 20 Sail of Vessels are arrived from the Fleet before Louisbourg, viz. the Captains Gayton, Snelling and Griffiths, Ships of War; a Ship, two Brigs and a Sloop, Prizes taken from the Enemy, a large Carolina Ship of this Province, they have brought in between 6 and 700 French Prisoners, taken in the Vigilant, and other Prizes.

Our Last Advices from the Fleet and Army are, (from the Fleet) That his Majesty's Ship Chester, of 50 Guns, was arrived from England, and had joined Commodore Warren: That she came out with 2 others of 60 Guns each, bound also to Cape Breton, and had parted with them four Days before her Arrival, with a French Privateer of 18 Carriage Guns and 160 Men, which they took on the Banks of Newfoundland: She came from France, and 'tis suppos'd designed to cruize on our Coast. That the Vigilant was refitted at Chappeaurouge-Bay, manned out of the other Ships, &c. and had joined the Squadron in the Blockade off the Harbour; that there had been found on board her upwards of 100 small Cannon fit for Privateers, 13 new Cables, and Rigging and Stores of all Sorts for two Men of War now building at Canada, &c. That the Vigilant had above 50 Men killed and wounded in the Engagement; Commodore Warren had 3 or 4 wounded, but none killed; the Mermaid had 2 killed by the Commodore, 2 or 3 wounded and the Eltham had one kill'd; but Captain Rouse who first engaged her, and kept under her Stern raking her fore and aft, (and who, as Monsieur says, broke all his Glass and China Ware, and kill'd him seven Men) had not one Man hurt. That our People had Advice, that 3 or 4 French Ships were soon expected at Louisburg from the East Indies, and some from the South Sea. That the Commodore having compleated a Plan of Operation, the Commanders of the Men of War had come to a Resolution to go into the Harbour, as soon as the other two 60 Gun Ships had joined them, which was every Moment expected, to attack the Town and Island Battery with their Ships, while the Army assaulted the Town by Land, and that they were preparing the Ships for that Service, as also a Number of Schooners to row like Galleys, to tow any of the Ships off that may happen to be disabled.
From the Army, That the Battery, erected near the Light-House, which was within Point Blank Shot of the Island Battery, had began their Fire on the Tenth Instant, when these Vessels were on their Departure, with the Appearance of good Success. That a very large Breach is made in the Town Wall near the West Gate, which had dismounted the Enemies Cannon there; and rendered the Town assailable, at least after the Ships were in, and began their Fire upon them on that Side from the Harbour; notwithstanding the Fascine Battery the Enemy were raising within before the said Gate to prevent the Entry of our Troops there; as they would be then immediately exposed to the Fire of the Ships within, as well as that of our Battery without, betwixt which two Fires it must be too warm for them to continue; and that our Fascine Battery is so near the Town, that our Soldiers and the Enemy frequently banter and bullerag one another.

We have also the Pleasure to know, that of the Number of our Men reported to have been drowned in the last Attempt to land on the Island Battery, 116 were prisoners of War; and that our Forces were yet at Sea and Land in good Spirits, and, considering their Number, in extraordinary Health; very few or none having died with Sickness, and not so many killed or wounded by many, as might, from the near Approaches and Skirmishes of our People, have been expected.

From Annapolis Royal we have an Account that Capt. Rouse, in the Shirley Galley, had been there Express from the Lieutenant General and the Commodore, and sailed again immediately for Louisbourg with two large Mortars, and sundry Cohorns, Shells, &c. to reinforce our Bomb-Ketches; that Capt. Tyng also in the Massachusetts, was then there for a true State of the Garrison, which was then unmolested, the Enemy having raised their Siege by Orders from Louisbourg, to repair there to the Relief of that Town; but that they were still at Menis: Whether they waited there for Provisions, or to be joined by any other Party or Vessel to transport them, after they had travelled across the Bay Vert, from thence to Cape Breton, was uncertain; if the latter, as the Commodore had got Intelligence of that Siege being raised, and the Reason why, from Mr. Engineer Bastide, who was arrived at the Camp before Louisbourg from Annapolis; he had ordered proper Cruizers out to intercept them, and it is to be hoped if they attempt to pass that Way their Design will be frustrated.

Besides the large Body of Troops lately sent to Cape Breton by this Government, the General Assembly have voted 1000 Men more to reinforce our Army, and most of them are already inlisted as Volunteers; near 400 have been in Town and equipped, and last Saturday a Schooner with one Company sailed for Cape Breton, the Remainder being embarked on board several Vessels will sail this Day for the same Place, as will likewise Capt. Snelling, with a Number of Seamen to help to man the Vigilant Man of War, lately taken from the Enemy.

We have Advice from Connecticut, that 200 recruits, newly raised in that Colony, are ready to embark for Cape Breton.

The Province of New Hampshire have voted 100 Men more, great Part of which are already raised, and the Colony of Rhode Island 150 Men, besides Seamen.


A Paragraph of a Letter from Capt. David Donahew,
Commander of the Sloop Resolution, dated Canso Passage, June 26.

"On the 15th Instant, in Askmacouse Harbour, up the Bay, my Luck was to meet with two Sloops and two Schooners, and an unaccountable Number of Indian Canoes. at Six the same Morning the Captains Becket and Fones, who were consorted with me, being to Leward saw some Smoke, which they pursued, and soon lost Sight of me. I pursued my; Chase, and at Ten o'Clock came up with and fired at them, they strove to decoy or catch me in Shoal Water, which I soon perceived, and I accordingly stood away from the Shore, they being a Thousand in Number, and I but forty odd; we spoke to each other for two Hours and a half; they knowing my Name, they desired me to make ready my Fast for them, and I telling the Cowards they were afraid to row up; the Weather start calm; as they came to Hand I killed, but the Number I know not; I fired two Hundred four Pounders, double Round and Patridge, fifty three Pounders, my Swivel and Small Arms continually playing on them. My Stern, by Force of firing, is down to the Water Edge, Round-house all to Pieces, but bold hearted; had it not bee so calm I should have done as I would, but not one Breath of Wind, and they rowing all round me both Head and Stern; but Capt. Becket and Capt. Fones appearing in Sight, they retreated and run into Shoal Water, I followed them within Pistol Shot till I ran aground; but blessed be God, have got safe off. This was the Army that besieged Annapolis, and was ordered to assist Louisbourg, but their Design is prevented."
Wednesday last the Eltham Man of War, and some other Vessels arrived from Louisburg, and have brought upwards of 200 more French Prisoners ...

Philadelphia, June 27.

By the Letters found on board his Vessel, the Spaniards learnt that an Expedition was on foot against cape breton, and Advice Boats were immediately dispatch'd by the Governor to the French Islands.

By private Letters from Boston, we learn, that Capt. Rouse had been at Annapolis Royal, and taken from thence 3 Mortars, with a proportionable Quantity of Shells, for the Use of the Army at cape breton. ...

June 28, 1745

June 28, 1745

From Sir William Pepperell to the Duke of New-Castle.

Louisbourg-, June 28, 1745.
My Lord Duke,—

I have already had the honour to transmit to your Grace in conjunction with commodore, Warren an account of ye success of his Majesty's arms, in the reduction of Louisbourg and territories adjacent, to his Majesty's obedience, which was happily effected on the sixteenth inst. by v an army of his Majesty's new English subjects, whom I have the honour to be at the head of; assisted on the sea-side by a squadron of his Majesty's ships, under the command of Mr. Warren, said fortresses and territories being surrendered on terms of capitulation, of which a copy was forwarded to your Grace with our letter, and duplicate thereof is herewith inclosed. On the 17th inst. his Majesty's ships entered the harbour and the same day part of the troops, with myself march'd into the city ; since which have us'd the utmost diligence in making the proper dispositions, for the security and good regulation of the place and the speedy evacuation of it, agreeable to the terms of capitulation. I have now the honour to inclose to your Grace an account of what troops were raised in each of his Majesty's governments in New-England, which were aiding in this expedition* [N.B. All the officers' names were sent home plac'd according to their rank] and the present state of them, and 1 flatter myself that his Majesty will be graciously pleased to approve of their zeal in voluntarily engaging in so expensive and hazardous an enterprize, even before they had notice of any other naval force than the private vessels of war fitted out by themselves ; and I humbly beg your Grace's leave to say that I shou'd not do my fellow soldiers justice if I omitted this opportunity to assure your Grace that they have with the utmost cheerfulness endured almost incredible hardships, not only those necessarily incident to a camp, in such an inclement climate, where their lodging and accommodations could not be but of the poorest sort; but also in landing and transporting with infinite industry, and pains, our heavy artillery (some of which were 42lb cannon) several miles, in cold foggy nights, over almost impassable bogs morasses and rocky hills ; also in landing the warlike stores, and provisions, in doing which they were extreamly exposed: and at the same time, we were obliged to keep out large detachments to range the woods in order to intercept and disperse parties of the French and Indian enemy, who were gathering together behind us, with whom we had several skirmishes, in all which we routed the enemy, killed and wounded many of them, and took upwards of two hundred prisoners. Several sallies were made from the town in all which we repulsed the enemy with very little loss on our side, and we have been so happy through God's goodness as not to lose above 100 men by the enemy in the whole of this great enterprize. They held out against a close siege of forty nine days, during which time we raised five fascine batteries, from whence, and a large battery deserted by the enemy, on our landing, we gave them above nine thousand cannon ball, and about six hundred bombs, which greatly distressed them, and much damaged their fortifications, and in particular rendered useless, the most considerable battery of the town, (called the Circular battery) which mounted sixteen large cannon, and very much commanded the harbour. The fatigue of our men in all those services was so great that we had near fifteen hundred sick at a time. Notwithstanding all which they not only continued to express the greatest zeal to go on vigorously against the enemy, but in general, generously acquiesced in the loss of the plunder they expected from the riches of the city ; and tho' undisciplined troops, I am persuaded his majesty has not in his dominions, a number of subjects more universally loyall, or that could possibly express greater readiness to spend their lives in the cause they were embarked in for his majesty's honour and the good of their country. I esteem it a peculiar favour, and of the happiest consequence, that his Majesty's ships sent so timely to our assistance were under the command of a gentleman of such distinguished merit and so universally beloved in New-England as Commodore Warren. He has constantly exerted himself to give the army all possible assistance ; and the same day that a suspension of hostilities was desired by the enemy, we had determined upon a general assault by land and sea. And for the better manning the ships for that purpose, it was agreed to spare them six hundred men out of our troops. I have the honour also to inform your Grace, that in our way from New-England, we stopt at Canso, and began to rebuild the fortification there which the French destroy'd last year, and left eight cannon with the necessary stores, and eighty men of the troops, to compleat and defend the same, which hope will meet with his majesty's gracious approbation ; we have also destroy'd the town and fort of St. Peters, and several other considerable settlements upon this island; and may the happy success of this expedition against Louisbourg (the pride of France) whereby his majesty has the key of the great river of St. Lawrence, and by which the absolute command of the fishery, and indeed very much of the whole trade of North America, is secured to his majesty's subjects, be an happy prelude to the reduction of all the French settlements in America; in which will your Grace permit me to say I am confident his Majesty's new English subjects will at all times be ready to contribute their utmost assistance, as for as their circumstances will admit of. And his Majesty's great goodness, leaves us no room to doubt but that he will be graciously pleased to express his royal favour toward those who engag'd in this expedition, in such manner as will animate them and their country to proceed further with the greatest chearfulness. I must not omit to acquaint your Grace that the French in conjunction with the Indian enemy had prepared to besiege the garrison of Annapolis Royal this summer. Seven or eight hundred of them gathered together there, expecting as it is said an armament from France to join them, but were called off from thence to the relief of Louisbourg, but did not arrive in season. It appears that there were notwithstanding about 2000 men able to bear arms in the city when it was surrendered.

I now have the honour to inclose to your Grace, an account of the state of this fortress, and of the stores found here, and I beg your Grace's leave to mention, that the inclemency of this climate, will render it absolutely necessary, that care be taken for the warm cloathing and lodging of the troops posted here. I presume his Majesty will be pleased forthwith to make known his royal pleasure, relating to this important place ; till which time, I shall endeavour, with the utmost loyalty, and my best discretion, to promote the security and good regulation thereof; and beg leave to subscribe myself, with all possible duty and respect, May it place your Grace, Your Grace's,

Most obedient and most humble servant,

WILLIAM PEPPERELL. Louisbourg, June 28th, 1745.

His Grace the Duke of New-Castle, &c. &c.

[John Farmer, Collections, Historical & Miscellaneous, and Monthly Literary Journal, Volume 3 (J.B. Moore, 1824), pp. 91- 94. ]

Boston, July 1.

Saturday last about Sunset, the Snow Caesar, in the Service of this Government, fell down to Nantasket, in order to sail for cape breton, with 70 or 80 Seamen raised at Rhode Island to help man the Vigilant Man of War. At coming to sail, she saluted the Town with 7 Guns, some of which, if not all, being shotted, one of the Shot went over the Town as far as Newbury Street, and broke a Woman's Thigh as she was standing in a Garden with several other persons. Her Thigh was cut off by a skilful Surgeon, and all possible Care is taken of her, but it is much feared she will not recover. Another Shot (a doubled-headed One) took off the Limb of a Tree, and was taken up in the Rope Walk near Fort Hill. ...

July 3, 1745 

About 1 Anchored in Lewisburg Harbour just afterwards came in a Sloop, then a skooner from Boston. P.M. came in Capt. Tompson, he fired 7 guns.------ ...

[  ]

Fort William, in Salem, July 3.

Upon News of the Surrender of Louisbourg, our captain ordered a Discharge of the Cannon at 6 o'Clock in the Morning, and in the Afternoon entertain'd the Gentlemen of the Town, when was toasted the Royal Healths, his Excellency's, Lieutenant-General Pepperel's, and the Hon. Commodore Warren's, &c. under a handsome Salvo of the same both great and small, and the Evening was concluded with great Rejoycings.

Boston July 3. 1745

Sr I have now the Pleasure to send your Honour by Express the News of the Reduction of Louisburg to the Obedience of his Majesty, & the Surrender of it accordingly; but to maintain our Conquest there which is of the utmost Importance, will require the Assistance of all his Majesty's Colonies & Provinces in North America for furnishing Men Ammunition and Provisions for Garrisoning and defending the Place 'till his Majesty shall order Troops from Great Britain or otherwise signify his Pleasure in this Affair. And I apprehend this to be the most critical Juncture for securing it from the Attempts of the Enemy to recover it, For it cannot be doubted, but that the French King will soon send a strong Force both of Ships & Troops to reduce it, before we can well be secured in the Possession of it; And you may reasonably judge that this Province is already drained of Men, Provisions, and Ammunition : However we are still so heartily engaged in this Service that we have lately sent four hundred Troops who I suppose arrived at Louisburg since the Surrender of it, besides upwards of sixty Seamen for Manning his Majesty's Ship Vigilant & have about two Hundred Soldiers more embarked and ready to embark whom I shall get away with all possible Dispatch, And I cannot but hope your Honour and the General Assembly of Maryland will in Duty to his Majesty & in Regard to the common Interest of all his Subjects in North America make Provision for the raising a number of Soldiers immediately for this Service & have them transported without Delay, and likewise give Orders for the taking up and purchasing all the Gun Powder and Provisions that can be got for the Garrison at Louisburg & the Ships employed there, of both which they are in want, as the General & Commodore inform me as also Provisions for the French Prisoners to be sent Home to France. And as this will require a vast Quantity of Provisions especially. It is my Opinion that no Provisions ought to be allowed to be shipped off from the Plantations where they are raised, to the West Indies, or any foreign Parts whatsoever till this want be supplied, It will likewise be requisite that all the Gun Powder that can be found in your Province, except what may be absolutely accessary for your own Defence, should be secured for his Majesty's Service, and I should think if your Honour will employ some Merchants in your Place for the purchasing of the Powder who will be able to find it out better than your own Officers, it will be most likely to be furnished with a good Quantity of it of which this Province is almost entirely exhausted, having sent off for the Expedition agt Louisburg about twelve Hundred Barrels, & I hope you will consider that both the Garrison & Ships will want a considerable Supply I am with great Regard Sir

Your Honours most obedient humble Servant

W. Shirley

Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly of Maryland, Lower House, Assembly Proceedings, August 5-September 28, 1745, Volume 44, pp. 65-66  [ ] [ ]

Philadelphia, July 4.

... We hear from New York, that the new Assembly of that Province met on the 25th past: The Governor in his Speech earnestly recommended to them the assisting New England in the cape breton Expedition, and they soon after voted 5000 Pounds for that Purpose. ...


... Extract of a Letter from Louisburg, dated July 4.

---The more I view the Works the more is my Admiration, and instead of 2500 for the Attack or Siege, if the Strength had been known before, 10,000 would not have been thought sufficient: The Island and Grand Batteries are the weakest of their Works; for Nature has on the Back of the Grand Battery, provided a Shelter for an Enemy's bombarding them out, which Providence gave us no Occasion for, and the Light-House the same, which did such Execution on the Island-Battery, that the Enemy was glad they could have recourse to the Water to avoid the impending Destruction from Balls and Bombs. Our Men, to their great Honour, have been perfect Hercules's in their Labours and Fatigues, and were so hardned to the Enemy's Fire that they would run and stop the Career of the Shot, before they had run their Distance. The French say they are Devils, for the hotter they fired, the nearer Advances they made to their Fire; and let what will have been said to their Prejudice, four times their Number of Regular Troops would not have undergone the Herculean Labours of drawing 42 Pounders over Hills and Dales, Rocks and Swamps, 3 or 4 Miles, God has greatly bless'd the whole Undertaking; and to describe the strength of Louisburg City, and the vast Labours of the French in casting up Works while besieged, is beyond my Pen to express; and the Addition we are making of a40 Pieces of Cannon out of the Launceston, will make it almost impregnable. Underneath is an Account of the Guns and Ammunition found in the several Batteries, viz. In the Town, 148 Embrazures, (Ports for Guns) 85 Cannon, 5 Brass Mortars, 1 Iron one, and 2 small Brass ones in the Store. In the Island Battery, 34 Embrazures, 30 Cannon, 2 Brass Mortars. In the Grand Battery, 30 Cannon. --- Found in the Town and the Island Battery, 112 Barrels of Gun Powder, and some Cartridges.

A Gentleman at Louisburg concludes a Letter, dated July 5, as follows, --- "IN the King's Stores were Provisions for full Allowance of 8 Months. --- This Minute are come in 4 Frenchmen from Tatmagush, up the Bay Vert, who say, that all the Canadians since the Engagement wit Donahew, are gone off to Canada, hearing I suppose, of the surrender of this Place --- They say, Donahew killed one of the Chiefs of the Indians."

Saturday last an Express came in from the Eastward, and brought advice, that last Monday Night a large Body of Indians attacked the Block-House on Georges's River, not far from the Fort, but did little Damage, the People being on their Guard. They burnt a Dwelling House and Saw Mill at some Distance, kill'd one Man, and 50 or 60 Head of Cattle. The Inhabitants are all in Garrison, and expect their Houses will soon be laid in Ashes.

Yesterday two Vessels arrived here from Louisburg with French Prisoners. They came out with other Vessels, and inform, that 4 more were to sail in a Day or two for this Place all with French People, late Inhabitants of Cape Breton.

By the Vessels come in, we have the following very melancholy Account that on the 4th or 5th of this Inst. July the bold and active Capt. Donahew, being in the Gut of Canso , and seeing 3 Canoes, with only 2 Indians in each, went ashore in his Boat with 10 Men besides himself, among which were his Brother, (Lieutenant,) his Master and chief Mate, Gunner and Steward, Quartermaster and Coxswain. When they got ashore, they were immediately attacked by abut 150 Indians, who killed abut Half his small Company the first Volley, the others retired to the Boat, followed by the Indians, who soon shot them all dead, and afterwards hack'd them to Pieces with their Hatchets in a very inhuman Manner.

Newport, Rhode Island, July 5.

On Tuesday last 2 Transports, having on board 3 Companies in the Pay of this Colony, sail'd from hence for cape breton.

Yesterday arrived the most welcome News of the Surrender of cape breton, which fill'd every Breast with inexpressible Joy: --- The Colours were display'd on board every Vessel in the Harbour, and Fort George with the Privateers kept almost a continual Firing: At Evening the Governor and Council, with a Number of Gentlemen, went to the Colony-House, which was most beautifully illuminated; where the Royal Healths, the General's and Commodore's, and those worthy Commanders who had gallantly behaved in this grand Expedition, were drank; and Mr. Godfrey Malbone made a grand Entertainment at his House, which was beautifully illuminated, where the Healths were drank with a most chearful Spirit. ----- The Bonfires, Illuminations, ringing of Bells, and all Demonstrations of Joy expressed on this Occasion, loudly proclaimed the Zeal of the Inhabitants of the Town in this great Affair.

July 7, 1745

The necessity of praising God for mercies receiv'd : a sermon occasion'd, by the success of the late expedition, (under the direction and command of Gen. Pepperel and Com. Warren,) in reducing the city and fortresses of Louisburgh on Cape-Breton, to the obedience of His Majesty King George the Second. : Preach'd at Philadelphia July 7. 1745. / By Gilbert Tennent, A.M. Minister of the Gospel in Philadelphia. 

New York, July 8.

By Capt. Canon, who arrived here last Week from Boston, we are informed, That on the first Instant, being in Tarpaulin Cove, one Capt. Smith, in a Sloop belonging to New London, arrived there from the West Indies, who told him, That on the 16th of June, in Lat. 27, he was taken by a Fleet of near 50 Sail of French Vessels, among which he believes there were 20 Men of War; that he was along side of six 50 and 60 Gun Ships; but he could not learn certainly where they were bound; tho' some of the Men said, they were designed for cape breton; and that they ransomed him for 200 £. Sterling. ...

Boston, July 8.

LAST Tuesday Night arrived here Capt. Bennet with Dispatches from Lieutenant General PEPPEREL and Commodore WARREN, by which we have the good News of the Surrender of the important City and Fortresses of Louisburg, at Cape Breton, to our Forces, on the 17th of June last, after a Siege of near seven Weeks; our Fascine Batteries, opposite to the West-gate, having almost beat down their circular Battery; and the new Battery on the Light-house Side has, with our Cannon; and a large Mortar, play'd so incessantly and warmly on the Island Battery, that Numbers of the French abandoned it, and ran down into the Sea, to avoid the Fire: For further Particulars of this important Event, we refer to the following Letters, written by Gentlemen in the Army, well acquainted with the whole Affair ...

... Extract of a Letter from Boston, dated July 8.

On Saturday arrived here a Master of a Vessel that had been taken and carried into Martineco; who says, that while he was there, they had the News of Louisbourg's being besieged; that the Governor sent for Monsr. Caylus, and would have him gone with his Ships to the Northward to relieve the Place; but he declined the Thing as altogether unnecessary; For, says he, Louisbourg is so strong a Place, that all the King of England's Ships are not able to take it.

Wednesday last, a great Number of Guns were distinctly heard in several Places round this City, the Occasion of which, as well as the Place where they were fired, was unknown till the Evening of the Day following, when an Express arriv'd with Advice of the Surrender of Louisbourg, which had caus'd great Rejoycings at New York. 'Twas near 9 o'Clock when the Express came in, yet the News flying instantly round the Town, upwards of 20 Bonfires were immediately lighted in the Streets. The next Day was spent in Feasting, and drinking the Healths of Governor Shirley, Gen. Pepperel, Com. Warren, &., &c. under the Discharge of Cannon from the Wharffs and Vessels in the River; and the Evening concluded with Bonfires, Illuminations, and other Demonstrations of Joy. A Mob gathered, and began to break the Windows of those Houses that were not illuminated, but it was soon dispersed, and suppress'd. The Assembly of this Province is called by the Governor, to meet on Monday next on special Affairs.

July 11, 1745

Sewall, Joseph, 1688-1769. Title: The lamb slain, worthy to be praised, as the most powerful, rich, wise, and strong. [microform] : A sermon preach'd at the Thursday-lecture in Boston, July 11. 1745. / By Joseph Sewall, D.D. Pastor of a church in said town. Boston: : Printed for D. Henchman in Cornhil., 1745 [Dr. Sewall's sermon at the Thursday-lecture, July 11. 1745.]

Boston, July 15.

Last Monday his Excellency our Governor, with the Advice of his Majesty's Council, was pleased to issue a Proclamation, appointing Thursday the 18th Instant, to be observed as a Day of publick Thanksgiving throughout the Province, on Account of the Success granted to our Forces, in the Reduction of the important City and Fortresses of Louisbourg, with the Dependencies thereof at Cape Breton. And all Persons whatever, especially such as are in civil Authority, are therein called upon to use their Endeavours that all Disorders unbecoming so sacred a Solemnity may be prevented.

On Tuesday Morning last arrived at Nantasket from the Harbour of Louisbourg, in 8 Days, his Majesty's Ship Hector, Capt. Cornwell Commander, who brought 200 of the French Inhabitants of that Place, and on Saturday they were conveyed to Town.

Yesterday arrived here Capt. Sanders in 9 Days from Cape Breton, by whom we have Advice, That the Launceston Man of War, having taken out her Guns, was sail'd with 10 Transports for France, carrying with them 1600 French Soldiers and Inhabitants, according to Capitulation.

We hear also that Capt. Rouse, in the Shirley Galley, was to sail for England, with Dispatches, the 5th Instant.

We likewise hear that our Men were very busy in repairing the Fortifications and Dwelling Houses of Louisbourg, damnified by our Shot and Shells in the late Siege.

We have Advice by the same Vessel, that Capt. Donahew, in a Sloop in the Service of the Province, has lately had a very smart Engagement in the Gut of Canso, with several Vessels mann'd with French and Indians, and, as his Custom has always been, came off Conqueror.

The Eltham Man of War is also expected here from Louisbourg, in order to sail for England with the Mast Ships and others under her Convoy.

From the Boston Evening Post, July 15, 1745.

THE late Reduction of the City and Harbour of Louisbourg, not only appears wonderful to us in America, but must surprize the People of England, and make a considerable Noise thro' all Europe. Take it in all its Circumstances, it can scarce be parallell'd in History. And if it had not succeeded, it would undoubtedly have been censured by many as a Piece of prodigious Rashness, for a Province so small as this, and under such very great Difficulties, not only from their exposed Frontiers, the Defence of which one would have thought enough to have employed their whole Cares, but from their peculiar Poverty, to undertake so hazardous an Expedition, to strip themselves of an eighth Part of their People, and run the Risque of incurring a Debt which neither they nor their Children would be able to pay; and some, I doubt not, will still say, that Success is Wisdom, and we may thank kind Fortune, but assume nothing to our own Prudence. But for my Part, I am satisfied the Undertaking was well founded, the Scheme or Plan was rational, and this was a critical Opportunity, and it was improbable so favourable an one should ever offer hereafter.

The Accounts we had from several Persons of Reputation; who left Louisbourg in the Fall, of the Circumstances of the Place, were such as might justly obtain Credit, and render it probable that we should surprize them, or at all Events that our Army would be Masters of the Field, and that in Time we should force them to surrender tho' it afterwards appear'd that these Accounts were not in every Circumstance exactly true. And the Naval Force which our Province could furnish. was thought sufficient to prevent any Supplies which there was any Danger of their receiving, until a larger Force should arrive from England or the West Indies. I know it is said, that we were at no Certainty of any Naval Force from Europe or the West Indies, and if there had been a Failure here, one French 70 Gun Ship would have raised the Siege, if not destroyed the whole Fleet and Army. I would observe, in Answer to this, that Pacquets were immediately dispatched both to the West Indies and to England; and it was impossible when an Affair of such vast Importance to his Majesty's Interest depended on the Assistance of a few of his Ships, that they should not directly be seat; and all that seemed fortuitous here was, that all the Letters of Advice might possibly miscarry. It has likewise been objected, that our Officers and Troops were unexperienced, which I must allow; but then I challenge any Army in Europe to produce Three Thousand stouter, braver Men, fired with more resolution and stronger Resentment. And I have heard, that an Officer among the French Prisoners, on being asked whether he thought the Place would be taken, replied, "That he doubted whether Ten Thousand Regular Forces would take it, but he did not know what these mad Fellows might do."

There seem'd a further Necessity of engaging in the Expedition just at this Time, tho' with considerable Uncertainty and Hazard; for we were assured, that the Enemy had determined on a strong Attempt against Annapolis in the Spring; and who doubts but they would have succeeded? And the Consequence would have been, that five or six Thousand French Inhabitants would have carried all before them into the very Bowels of New Hampshire; and the French Nation is enterprizing enough to have attempted to Time the Conquest of this Continent: So that we may in some sort be said to have been fighting pro Aris & Focis.

It was undoubtedly likewise an Inducement with the General Assembly to agree to the Proposal, that they apprehended a general Disposition in all Ranks of People to exert themselves in their several Spheres, for Delenda est Carthago had all the Year past been in every Body's Mouth. And they certainly were not mistaken in this their Apprehension, for in about six Weeks after the Thing was determined on, more than 3000 Men (besides 1500 in the Ships of War) had been enlisted, 80 Transports and Store-ships provided, the Army all embark'd, and the whole Fleet sailed: And with such surprising Secrecy was this performed, that I have seen Letters from Gentlemen no farther off than Philadelphia, after the Fleet sailed, mentioning, that they had some Reports of an Expedition on Foot, but could come at no Certainty about it. A large Committee of the General Court threw aside their private Business, and applied themselves wholly to this grand Affair: But such has been the unwearied Application of his Excellency the Governor, and with such Wisdom, Prudence and Firmness of Mind, has he concerted and conducted this whole Affair, as can never be equalled; and so many Difficulties has he surmounted, that I verily believe there never has been a Gentleman in the Chair of Government in any of the Plantations, but what would have yielded and sunk under them.

But notwithstanding I am desirous of vindicating the Authors of the Expedition from the Charge of having engag'd in a rash ill-judg'd Attempt, or the Conductors of it from the Charge of want of faithful Application; yet I must own, that never any Affair seem'd to be more under the immediate Influence of Heaven, than this has been; and surely none will endeavour on this Account to deprive the Government of their just Share in the Honour of this Action. It is enough to have been the Instruments in the Hand of Providence of bringing about so happy an Event, tho' not in every Circumstance just in the Way and Manner we intended.

I have been inform'd, that the Vote for engaging in this Affair, was carried by one Voice only in Fourscore of the House of Representatives, and that a Gentleman who voted against it in the committee, was on further Consideration in Favour of it in the House. And every Body has observed, that there does not happen once in Twenty Years such a Scene of fine Weather in February and March, as we have had this Year, while we were preparing for the Expedition, and not one Storm in that ordinarily tempestuous Season, to ruffle our Fleet in their Passage.

Now, if there had been any Delay, the Enemy would have received great Succour and Strength; for a Frigate of 36 Guns had been sent from France earlier than has been known with stores, &c. for the Garrison, but by our Cruizers was prevented getting into the Harbour.

But what is very extraordinary, and looks as if Heaven designed to make the Expedition its own, and to baffle us in our Measures, however rational, but yet to provide a Cause we were ignorant of, to bring about the same Thing we aimed at, is this, That when our Pacquet was received by Commodore Warren, the Circumstances of the Fleet in the West-Indies was such, by the Loss of the Weymouth, and the News of a French Squadron expected, as that we had no Prospect of more than one 40 Gun Ship being sent us; but a few Days after our Pacquet left the Islands, Orders arrived from England to the same Commodore, to come with some of his Ships to the Northward, and concert with our Governor the general Service of these Colonies, but without any immediate View to our Expedition, of which the Ministry had at that Time received no Advice. Now, it since appears, that the Success of the whole depended on this single Circumstance: For tho' our Advices sent to England arrived so early, that had the two Ships sent from thence gone direct to Cape-Breton, they would have been in Season, yet so it happened, that both the said Ships came hither first, and were too late at Cape-Breton, to have prevented the Vigilant getting into the Harbour; the Consequences of which must undoubtedly have been the raising of the Siege, if not the Destruction of our Transports: But this Ship was happily taken by the West-India Squadron.

And it is further observable, that when this Squadron left the West-Indies, they were designed to Boston, but being informed by a Schooner on the Banks that our Fleet was failed, the brave and generous Commodore, tho' badly supplied with Provisions and Stores, went directly to Cape-Breton, or otherwise he might have been too late; but sent his Orders for all his Majesty's Ships then here, or that might arrive, to come and join him; which Orders met the Eltham, a Ship of Importance, but an Hour or two before she would have sailed for England.

After our Forces had been landed seven Weeks, and the large Supply they had of Ammunition was expended, a Ship with Stores, designed for Annapolis, unexpectedly arrives, and enables them to make such a vigorous Fire upon the Enemy, as forces them to surrender.

The last Thing I shall observe is, that the very Day after the Surrender, News is brought t our Army of 2500 French and Indians within seven Miles of them, designed for the Relief of the Place.

I could mention many more remarkable Circumstances, an shew a Chain and Coincidency of various Events previous to, and necessary to give this Undertaking Success; but here is enough to prove, that this grant Affair is above the ordinary Curse of Things; and whoever believes that GOD does at all concern himself with human Affairs (much more we that believe that the Hairs of our Heads are numbered) must needs conclude this whole Business had been determined and directed by him.

New York, July 15.

Last Tuesday late at Night arrived an Express from his Excellency Governor Shirley, to his Excellency our Governor with an Account of the Surrender of Louisbourg, with all the Fortresses thereto belonging, to the Obedience of his Majesty; Upon which Occasion his Excellency, with the Gentlemen of his Majesty's Council, and several other Gentlemen and principal Merchants, were entertained at Dinner the next Day by the Mayor and Corporation of this City, when all the loyal Healths were drank, with those concerned in this considerable Conquest, and to the Continuance of Louisbourg under British Colours for ever, while the Cannon of Copsey Battery and the Vessels in the Harbour were firing. In the Evening there was a magnificent Bonfire erected, at which the same Healths were repeated: At Night the whole City was splendidly illuminated, and the greatest Demonstration of Joy appeared in every Man's Countenance upon hearing the good News. The Gentlemen at Dinner made a handsome Collection for the Person who brought the Express, which he voluntarily engaged to convey hither; And there being present at this Entertainment many of the Persons who, at the Instance of his Excellency our Governor, had engaged with him in a Subscription, immediately after the Dissolution of the late Assembly, for the Purchasing a Quantity of Provisions to be forthwith transported and consigned to Governor Shirley, for the Service of the Expedition; The Vote of the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay was read, returning their Thanks to his Excellency Governor Clinton, for that Instance of his Zeal in promoting this important Expedition; and to desire he would acquaint the Gentlemen concerned in the said Subscription, how acceptable this mark of their publick Spirit was to that Court. ...

... Paragraph of a Letter from Commodore Warren to Thomas Lechmore, Esq;
dated Louisburg, July 17, 1745.

"I congratulate you on the Success of his majesty's Arms under the Direction of General Pepperell, and your humble Servant. --- His Country is highly obliged to him for this glorious Acquisition; and I make no doubt but they will be well pleased at it."

Friday last Capt. Grace arrived here in eight Weeks from Gibraltar, who informs, that a great Number of Officers charged with Misconduct in the Engagement with the French and Spanish Fleets in the Mediterranean, were gone home to be tried. -- That Admiral Rowley had taken a French Man of War of 40 Guns upon the Coast of Spain, and a great Number of other rich Prizes, one of which was a Snow from the Havanna, with a prodigious Sum of Money on board. By this Snow the Admiral was informed, that 6 Galleons were expected from the Havanna, with vast Sums of Money on board, upon which he sent Admiral Medley with a strong Squadron to cruize for 'em in the Bay of Cadiz, while himself with the rest of the Fleet block'd up the French and Spanish Squadrons in the Harbour of Carthagena. The Captain farther informs, that before Admiral Rowley left Mahon Harbour, he gave a strict Charge to all the Lieutenants of the Fleet (in the hearing of the Captains) to confine their respective Commanders and take the Charge of the Ships, if in any Engagement with the Enemy they observ'd the Captains to fail in their Duty: The same Charge he gave to the several Officers below the Lieutenants, to serve them in the same Manner, if they observ'd them to fail in their Duty, when they had an Opportunity to annoy the Enemy.

The Privateer Brig. Hawk, Capt. Philip Bass, and the Brig. Ranger, Capt. Edward Fryer, each mounting 14 Carriage and 20 Swivel Guns, with Blunderbusses, &c. are fitting out here with the utmost Expedition, to cruise in Consort, to endeavour to intercept some of the East India, South Sea, or other Ships bound to Cape Breton.

... Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman in England, to one
in Boston dated July 17, 1745.

"I hope the News of Cape Breton's being took will prove true. The Massachusetts Government has won great Honour by the Expedition. -- Mr. Kilby has represented your Government is so favourable a Light to the Court, that instead of beholding you with Jealousy and Contempt, as they once did, 'tis almost as much as a Man's Character is worth, to be tho't an Enemy to the present Establishment: You are now stiled the Glorious New-England Men, who have not only relieved and saved his Majesty's Government of Annapolis Royal, but have recovered out of the Enemy's Hands one of their strongest Fortresses, and at a Place of the utmost Consequence to the Trade of the Kingdom, as well as Protection to the Northern English Colonies. Governor Shirley by his wise Conduct in this Affair, is look'd upon in such a Light (to say no more) as I believe no one before him has appear'd in, and has effectually established his Character. --- This Affair has been luckily timed for your Place."

July 18, 1745

Prince, Thomas,  Extraordinary events the doings of God, and marvellous in pious eyes. : Illustrated in a sermon at the South Church in Boston, N.E. on the general thanksgiving, Thursday, July 18. 1745. Occasion'd by taking the city of Louisbourg on the Isle of Cape-Breton, by New-England soldiers, assisted by a British squadron. / By Thomas Prince, M.A. and one of the Pastors of said church. Boston: Printed for D. Henchman in Cornhil., 1745.

See also Web for the digitized book.

[July 18, 1745]

... But the great item of domestic intelligence, which confronts us under various forms in the pages of this Magazine, is the siege and capture of Louisburg, and the reduction of Cape Breton to the obedience of the British crown,--an acquisition for which his Majesty was so largely indebted to the military skill of Sir William Pepperell, and the courage of the New England troops, that we should naturally expect to find the exploit narrated at length in a contemporary Boston magazine. The first of the long series is an extract from the "Boston Evening Post" of May 13, 1745, entitled, "A short Account of Cape Breton"; which is followed by "A further Account of the Island of Cape Breton, of the Advantages derived to France from the Possession of that Country, and of the Fishery upon its Coasts; and the Benefit that must necessarily result to Great Britain from the Recovery of that important Place,"--from the "London Courant" of July 25. In contrast to this cool and calculating production, we have next the achievement, as seen from a military point of view, in a "Letter from an Officer of Note in the Train," dated Louisburg, June 20, 1745, who breaks forth thus:--"Glory to God, and Joy and Happiness to my Country in the Reduction of this Place, which we are now possessed of. It's a City vastly beyond all Expectation for Strength and beautiful Fortifications; but we have made terrible Havock with our Guns and Bombs. ... Such a fine City will be an everlasting Honour to my Countrymen." Farther on, we have another example of military eloquence in a "Letter from a Superior Officer at Louisburgh, to his Friend and Brother at Boston," dated October 22, 1745. To this succeeds "A particular Account of the Siege and Surrender of Louisburgh, on the 17th of June, 1745." The resources of the pictorial art are called in to assist the popular conception of the great event, and we are treated on page 271 to a rude wood-cut, representing the "Town and Harbour of Louisburgh," accompanied by "Certain Particulars of the Blockade and Distress of the Enemy." Still farther on appears "The Declaration of His Excellency, William Shirley, Esq., Captain General and Governour in Chief of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, to the Garrison at Louisburgh." July 18, 1745, was observed as "a Day of publick Thanksgiving, agreeably to His Excellency's Proclamation of the 8th inst., on Account of the wonderful Series of Successes attending our Forces in the Reduction of the City and Fortress of Louisburgh with the Dependencies thereof at Cape Breton to the Obedience of His Majesty." There are also accounts of rejoicings at Newport, New Haven, New York, Philadelphia, and other places. Nor was the Muse silent on such an auspicious occasion: four adventurous flights in successive numbers of the Magazine attest the loyalty, if not the poetic genius of Colonial bards; and a sort of running fire of description, narrative, and anecdote concerning the important event is kept up in the numbers for many succeeding months.

July 18, 1745

Chauncy, Charles, Marvellous things done by the right hand and holy arm of God in getting him the victory. [microform] : A sermon preached the 18th of July, 1745. Being a day set apart for solemn thanksgiving to almighty God, for the reduction of Cape Breton by His Majesty's New England forces, under the command of the Hounourable William Pepperrell, Esq; lieutenant-general and commander in chief, and covered by a squadron of His Majesty's ships from Great Britain, commanded by Peter Warren, Esq; / By Charles Chauncy, D.D. Pastor of a church in Boston. 

July 18, 1745

Prentice, Thomas, When the people, and the rulers among them, willingly offer themselves to a military expedition against their unrighteous enemies, and are successful therein, the Lord is to be praised, and they to be loved and honoured therefor. : A sermon preached at Charlestown, on a general thanksgiving, July 18. 1745. For the reduction of Cape-Breton, by an army of New-England volunteers, under the command of the Honourable William Pepperrell, Esq; lieutenant-general and commander in chief. With the assistance of a British squadron, commanded by Peter Warren, Esq; : and now published at the desire of a number of the hearers. / By Thomas Prentice, A.M. and one of the pastors of the church in Charlestown.  Boston, : printed and sold by Rogers and Fowle in Queen-Street, next to the prison., 1745.

[July 25, 1745]

By the GOVERNOR'S COMMAND, NOTICE is hereby given, at the Desire of Commodore WARREN, that all Vessels carrying Provisions, &c. to Louisbourg, will be permitted to trade free of Duty or Impositions of any kind; that the Seamen shall not be compelled to serve on board any of his Majesty's Ships there, and that several Prizes taken from the Enemy will be speedily Sold.

New York

Extract of a Letter from Commodore Warren, dated at
Louisburg, July 25.

"We find by Letters in this Ship that five French East-India Ships, four of them China Men, have been taken by Mr. Barnet's Squadron. --- If any Vessels will come down here with Provisions of all Kinds, such as Bread, Flour, Pease, Pork, Beef, and Butter, I would exchange Goods for them."


The following Notification from Commodore Warren, is published here by Order of the Governor.

Louisburg, July 25.

"WHEREAS a very valuable French East-India Ship from Bangal, called the Charmont, was lately taken by two of his Majesty's Ships of Commodore Warren's Squadron, and is brought into this Port, having on board a large Quantity of Muslings of various Sorts, plain and embroidered, and all other Sorts of Cottons, a large Quantity of Handkerchiefs, of various Sorts, for Men and Women, plain and embroidered, Seersuckers, a large Quantity of raw Silk and Kirman Wool, Table Linnen, a large Quantity of Pepper, and a Variety of other valuable Merchandize, yet unknown;

"This is therefore to notify all Persons inclining to purchase any of said Goods, that the above-mentioned Ship and Cargo will be condemned in this Port, and the Sale of said Cargo will begin in about a Month from this Date. P. WARREN.

We hear from Maryland, that the Assembly of that Province have voted 2000 £. Currency, to be laid out in Provisions for the Garrison at Louisburg; also Half a Ton of Powder, and Three Tons and a half of Ball.

We hear also, that the Governor and Council of Virginia have given 1500 £. Sterling to New England on the same Account, and that it was expected the Assembly when met would give another Sum.

Capt. Green, from Providence, informs us, that the Havannah Galley, taken some Time ago by Capt. Dennis, and now commanded by Captain Thompson, has taken and brought in there, two French Prizes, a Ship and Sloop, chiefly laden with Wine, Rum and Brandy.

Tuesday last two of the Trembleur Privateer's Men quarrelled at a Game of Cards, and went to Fighting; one of them died soon after. The Coroner's Inquest were of Opinion, that the Man being much enflamed with Liquor, the Violence of his Exercise in Fighting broke some Blood Vessel inwardly, and occasioned his Death.

Monday last the General Assembly of this Province met here.

[Reverend Thomas Balch. Chaplain]

July 27, 1745

Having an Inclination and being desired by the Committee of War to attend the Army as one of the Chaplains in the Expedition against Cape Breton, I accordingly obtained consent of my People on March 11, 1744-5 and on the 13, took my leave of my family and People. Arrived in Safety & Health at Canso on the 2d of April. Sailed from Canso to Cape Breton on April 29, entered the Chappeaurouge Bay the next morning, and soon after went on Shoar. The seige of Louesborg continued until June 17. On which Day we entered and took possession of that Strong & important place, upon Terms of Capitulation. Sailed from Louisborg for New England, July 22, arrived in Safety at Boston on the 27 of 3d month, 1745, Laus Deo.

[Records of the South Parish of Dedham, Suffolk County, Massachusetts - ]

Boston, July 29.

We have Advice from the Eastward, that the Indians have lately killed a Man and wounded a Woman at a Place called Broad Bay, and burnt several Houses in other Places.

Since our last several Vessels arrived from Louisburg with Provisions, and 70 or 80 of our own Men, who belong to the Eastern Parts, or Frontier Towns expos'd to the Indians.

'Tis said a Snow from France lately came into the Harbour of Louisburg, where she was made a Prize, not having heard that the Place was reduced to the Obedience of his Majesty.

Last Saturday a Vessel arrived here from Annapolis Royal, in whom came Mr. Picket, Steward to the late Capt. Donahew, and one of those who went ashore in the Gut of Canso, and were all tho't to kill'd by the Indians. Mr. Picket gives the following Account of that unhappy Affair, viz. That they found 253 French and Indians on Shore, with whom they engaged for upwards of a quarter of an Hour, in which time Capt. Donahew and his Brother, with four others, were killed, and the other five being much wounded, had Quarter given them. The Enemies had two kill'd and as many wounded in the Engagement, which being over, the Indians cut open Capt. Donahew's Breast, and suck'd his Blood, and hack'd and mangled his Body in a most inhuman and barbarous Manner, and then eat a great Part of his Flesh. They also suck'd the Blood and mangled the Bodies of the other Slain, after which they carried their Prisoners to Menis, where they were about to kill and eat Mr. Picket, but he being acquainted with some if the French Inhabitants, they so far stood his Friend, (with the Assistance of the Priest) as to procure his Liberty for a Sum of Money: He afterwards got to Annapolis Royal, but the other Prisoners were carried to Canada, whither the French and Indians who came from thence last Winter, were returned, much cast down at the News of our taking of Louisburg. 'Tis also said, many of the French Inhabitants of Menis were retired to Canada; and by Letters from Annapolis Royal, we are informed, that the Indians of Nova Scotia, sensible of their Error in making War upon the English, as Things turn out, are now confessing their Faults, and suing for Peace in the most humble and prostrate Manner.

The same Day Capt. Thompson, in the Rhode Island Ship in the Service of this Government, arrived here in 17 Days from Louisburg, with 200 of our Soldiers, mostly belonging to the Towns expos'd to the Indians.

And in the Evening a Sloop arrived from the same Place with about 50 Soldiers, many of them sick.
Last Night Capt. Snelling in one of our Cruizers of 20 Guns, and a Transport Schooner, arrived here from Louisburg, by whom we hear, that Capt. Fletcher had taken a large Schooner bound to Louisburg from Canada, loaden with Provisions, and as she had six Carriage Guns, was doubtless design'd for a privateer. Capt. Tyng in the Massachusetts is daily expected here from Louisburg.


Since our last several Vessels arrived here from Louisburg, which have brought Advices of great Importance to some People, as will appear by the following Letters.

Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman at Louisburg,
dated July 29, 1745.

This Day was brought into this Harbour a very rich East India Ship, deeply laden: She was taken Yesterday Morning about Meeting Time, a few leagues off the Harbour's Mouth by the Chester and Mermaid, two of our Men of War: We on Shore saw her taken: She received two Broadsides, gave one, and struck. --- Five Days before this another appeared off the Harbour: It being calm, two Ships, viz. The Princess Mary and Canterbury were tow'd out; there presently coming up a Breeze, they bore down upon her under French Colours: She stood in for the Shore, supposing them to be French Men of War. --- I stood on the Ramparts, and saw the Princess Mary give her a Broadside; the French Ship wore and stood off; but her Rigging was so hurt by our Fire, that the Princess Mary presently came up with her, and in a few Minutes took her: She proved to be one of the richest prizes taken this War: She is said to be worth 200,000 £. Sterling: Part of her Cargo is 840 Bales of Muslin, 30 Tons of Pepper, a great Variety of Cottons and Handkerchiefs. --- The letters, 5 large Boxes, were flung over board, but our People had the Favour of taking up 4 of them. --- Some of the French Letters from the East Indies say, Four of their Ships were taken by our Ships in the East Indies; and that the French are in a suffering Condition for want of Provisions. --- By the Account these East India Men give, we daily expect more from the same Quarter; and have some Hopes of a South Sea Man or Two here shortly. --- The French are most of them transported; and the Indians dispersed, and gone to Canada, except a few as we are informed by the Friars, now with us. --- The publick Buildings, Citadel and Chapel, are repairing, as well as the Walls, which were much battered. --- Twenty-two small Vessels, which the Army got Possession of (they lying within Command of our Batteries) were sold at vendue last Saturday: There remains several more to be disposed of for the Use of the Army; which Vessels are now sunk, but will be weighed soon. --- Our People are fitting, and have fitted, many of the Shallops, and are fishing daily. --- Fish is plenty, especially Mackerel, and those very large. As the Sea here abounds, so the Rivers and Ponds are stored with fine Salmon, Trouts and other Fish: The Woods with Hare and Pheasants. The Out Settlements are upon a fine Soil; their English Grass, some say, is exceeding rank, much higher and thicker, that it is with us. --- Here is choice Woodland, and a vast Quantity of Seal Coal ...

August, 1745

II CHR. 20:27-29: "When any [of] God's people have been forth to war and God has remarkably appeared to fight for them and return em to the people and house of God in prosperity, it is an occasion that requires much praise and thanksgiving to God" (p. 2) 
"On occasion of the return of our soldiers from Cape Breton"

[Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, General Collection of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Jonathan Edwards Collection, Gen Mss 151, Writings of Jonathan Edwards, Series 1, Box 1, Folder 90, August 1745]

Williamsburg, August 3.

On Tuesday last his Honour the Governor, with the Council, were pleased to order a Quantity of Beef, Pork, Bread, Wine and Tobacco, to the Value of about 2000 £. to be bought and shipped as soon as possible, to cape breton, towards the Subsistance of our good Friends there. It may easily be imagin'd how acceptable Provisions will be there, when we are certain that there are still 4000 French People left at that Place, after they had shipp'd off 1600 to Old France, and 1200 to New England.

The Wager Man of War, Capt. Forest, a 20 Gun Ship, is arriv'd in James River from cape breton, to convoy such Vessels as are ready to go thither with Provisions: We hear he intends to sail again in a few Days.

[August 4]


On the 4th Inst. N.S. sall'd from Brest for Cape Breton the following ships,

                       G.  M                               G.  M.

Le Mars        70 750      La Gunette     60  600

St Michael     70 700     La Tourneau   46  500

LaRenomme  60 600     La Gullasoe    52  550

La Parfairs     62  560

[Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 15, July, 1745, Page 391  [Source: ]


... Extract of a Letter from Louisburg to a Gentleman in
Boston, dated August 5, 1745.

IN my last I informed you of an East India Man's being taken and brought in here. I have now an Opportunity of acquainting you not only of another India Man's being taken; but also of a South Sea Man, who, I am told by Commodore Warren, has on board near 400,000 £. Sterling in Money, about 600 Serons of Cocoa, and some Hides; and this Money Mr. Warren (who gives us all the Proof imaginable of being a true and hearty Friend to New England, and in particular Manner to this Place) intends to divide among the Captors, which are six men of War, all being within Sight when taken, and to share without Contention these three valuable Prizes. -- We learn by this South Sea Ship, that two others came with her from Lima, both richer than this; and that they all three were attacked in Lat. 43, something to the Eastward of the Newfoundland Banks by two English Ships, who took the other two: Mr. Warren, from Circumstances, is in strong Hopes they are the other two Ships belonging to his squadron, that are cruising, viz. the Superb and Wager: Who the lucky Captors are we cannot yet tell; but 'tis a Pleasure to know they are taken, as on the one Hand these valuable Prizes enrich the British Subjects, and on the other, distress our great Enemy ...

Boston, August 5.

Last Monday Capt. Tyng in the Massachusetts Frigat, arrived here from Louisburg, and brought in about 50 French people, late Inhabitants of Cape Breton.

And on Saturday his Majesty's Ship Eltham, Capt. Tiddeman, sail'd for England, with 4 Mast Ships, and 13 or 14 other Ships under her Convoy. Several of the French Officers taken in the Vigilant Man of War, are gone home in the Eltham.

The same Day His Excellency our Governor, with his Lady, embark'd on board his Majesty's Ship Hector, in Nantasket Road, and about 12 o'Clock at Night set sail for Louisburg.

The Massachusetts Frigat, Capt. Tyng, will sail in a Day or two for Louisburg, and we hear that several of the Members of his majesty's Council will go in her.

By Letters from Louisburg we learn, that the French Shallows are daily coming in there from all Parts around them with French Families, in order to be transported, so that 'tis thought there will be in the Whole more Frenchmen carried off than there were of the English in our Army.

They also write, That the French 30 Gun Ship that was chas'd and attack'd sometime ago by our Cruizers, and being a fine Sailer escap'd them, is arriv'd at Canada much shatter'd; and 'tis said, that the Schooner taken by Capt. Fletcher, has some of her Cargo on board.

On Friday July 12th the Rev. Mr. Whitefield preach'd for the Rev. Mr. White of Hardwicke twice, and once at Quabin, a new Place were there is no Minister, Saturday fort he Rev. Mr. Abercrombie of Pelham, Lord's Day for the Rev. Mr. Edwards of Northampton twice, on Monday and Tuesday once; on Wednesday for the Rev. Mr. Judd at Newhampton, where he was attended by many Friends with Muskets and Pistols on Account of the Indians, it being the outmost Settlement: He kept the Thanksgiving at Northampton and preached at the Request of the Rev. Mr. Edwards, on Friday for the Rev. Mr. Williams of Hadley once, and in the Evening for the Rev. Mr. Parsons at the Swamp, on Lord's Day for the Rev. Mr. Trowbridge, twice on Monday for the Rev. Mr. Harvey at Kensington, and went from thence to Long Meadow.

... Extract of a Letter from a Sea Office at
Louisburg, August 6.

I Congratulate you upon our having taken two French Ships from the East Indies, and one from the South Sea. The Cargoe of the two first cost, each 75,000 £. sterl. in the east Indies, and therefore must be worth in this Part of the World each 150,000 £. sterl. --- The South Sea Ship is of more Value than both the former. We have already taken out of her 300,000 £. Sterl. in Specie, and no doubt there is a great deal more on board, beside a vast Quantity of Goods of little less Value than Gold or Silver; so that she is exceeding rich, and one of the finest Prizes that has been taken this War, either in Europe or America. --- The second East India Ship was taken by the Chester and Mermaid; and Capt. Fletcher cruizing along the Shore, took her Boat with the second Captain in it, who had been ashore enquiring after News. --- The South Sea Man was taken the 2d of this Month. --- Early in the Morning Capt. Fletcher espied a Ship about 4 Miles to leeward, who flung out a French Ensign, which he answered with another. She stood up for him, and gain'd upon him apace. He made all ready with abundance of Joy and Pleasure: But finding her to be a pretty large Ship of 22 Guns: and being informed by the India Captain whom he had taken the Day before, that she was very strong; observing at the same Time two of our men of War coming out of the Harbour, and knowing that his Vessel was exceeding foul, he thought best not to bear down to her, till our Men of War should be in a fair Way to come up; and sent his Barge with 8 Oars to inform them what she was. Mean while she came within Gunshot of Captain Fletcher, taking him still for a Frenchman. At length Capt. Durell coming pretty near him, he bore down along side the Frenchman, giving the Honour to Captain Durell to fire a Shot at her: She struck immediately, so that Capt. Fletcher had no Occasion to fire. The Commodore, who saw the whole Action, was pleased to tell Capt. Fletcher, That he very much approved of his Conduct in drolling the Frenchman till the Men of War came up; for had he bore down too soon, and so discover'd what he was, it might have been the Means of her getting away."

By Capt. Cowell from Lisbon, we have Advice, that there has been an Action between the King of Prussia and Prince Charles of Lorain, very much to the Disadvantage of the latter. That as three British Privateers were cruizing in the Bay of Biscay, they fell in with a Squadron of French men of War, who hoisted the bloody Flag and sunk two of the Privateers, the other attempting to escape, was overset, and the French were so ill-natured as not to save one Man out of the three Ships. Capt. Cowell met with a British Privateer off the Western Islands, whose Captain told him, that he and his Consort had fallen in with the above-said French Squadron, and exchanged some Shot with them, but upon hoisting the bloody Flag, the Privateers stood away and happily escaped. The Great Britain Privateer, of Bristol, was unfortunately burnt by Accident, in the Harbour of Lisbon, and 'tis said five of her Crew perished in the Flames. --- Capt. Cowell was inform'd by the Master of a Portuguese Vessel, that he had spoke with the French Squadron mentioned above, and was told that they were bound to Cape Breton. --- We hear also that the Genoese have declared War against the Queen of Hungary.

We have Advice from Louisburg, that about a Fortnight ago, as Capt. Sherburne in a fine large Schooner was turning out of the Harbour, the Wind very high, the Vessel miss'd Stays, and was stove to Pieces against the Rocks near the Island Battery, but the Men were taken up by the Men of War's Boats.

From the same Place we have Advice, that there is great Plenty of all Sorts of Provisions, Liquors, &c. Abundance of Vessels from the Continent having arrived since the Surrender of the Place. 'Tis said near 800 Hogsheads of Rum have been already sent from this Town.


Extract of a private letter from London,
August 7.

"Cape Breton being now in the Hands of the English (at which News great Rejoicings were made here) I make no doubt but the Expence of that Expedition will be repaid here, on proper Account sent, and Application made, when the Parliament meets; but at present the Ministry I believe cannot do it, as there is no Fund to pay it out of. --- Things of late look but indifferently as to the Land War, especially in Flanders: Indeed many here are now of Opinion, that if the English had not expended so many Millions as they have done in carrying it on, but had employ'd the Money more in managing the War by Sea, and stuck principally to that, it would have been much to our Advantage. The taking of Cape Breton, and since that of two prodigious Rich South Sea Ships (worth near a Million Sterling) and 4 or 5 French Indiamen, three of them from China, with several other late valuable Captures, must greatly distress the Enemy, and go a good Way towards making Amends for our ill Success in other Respects.

A Letter from Lisbon of the 14 September, says, that before that Time, they expected Admiral Medley was sail'd from Gibraltar with 12 Men of War, and two Regiments of Soldiers, for Louisburg; and that the Reason of his so hasty Departure with such a Naval Force, was a Report that the French had sent a Squadron of Men of War to the American Seas.

The following is a Letter from Capt. John Wickham, Commander of his Majesty's Ship Lark, dated at St. John's in Newfoundland, Sept. 21, directed to his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, and Commanders of Ships at Ferriland, and brought by Capt. Knox from thence, who arrived here Yesterday.

"Whereas I have received certain Intelligence of the Arrival of three French Men of War in the Harbour of Carows, two of 44 Guns, and the other of 20, being Part of the 7 Sail from Brest, and bound for Cape Breton. That on the 11th Inst. they were fitting their Ships, and may be ready to sail by this Time; and as their Design may be the Destruction of the Trade and Fishery of this Island, I have dispatch'd this Express to acquaint you thereof, that you lose no Time, but immediately repair with your Ships to this Place, and that you will without Loss of Time forward the several Expresses as they are directed, by the quickest Conveyance, either by Sea or Land, and the Charge of conveying shall be paid. Given under my Hand, on board his majesty's Ship Lark, in St. John's, Newfoundland, this 21st Day of September, 1745.

John Wickham.

We hear the above mentioned French Ships have taken several of our Vessels.

[August 8, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia ... Lark, John Horner, cape breton...

New York, August 12.

Thursday last, Capt. John Smith, and on Saturday Evening Capt. Asa King, arrived here in 19 Days from Jamaica, the latter of them came out in Company with near 20 Sail of other Vessels bound to this and the neighbouring Governments. The most material Intelligence we can learn by them is, That the Government of Jamaica, on the News of the Arrival of Mons. Caylus's Squadron in the West-Indies, being apprehensive of an Attack or an Invasion, and having then but few Men of War at that Island, had, on the 19th of May laid an Embargo on all Shipping there, and proclaim'd Martial Law throughout the same; which continued upwards of 8 Weeks, to the great Stagnation of Business and Trade; but that they were now in daily Expectation of having a Reinforcement from England.

That about 12 Days before Cape. Smith sail'd, one of his majesty's Sloops of War, met with and took a French Privateer, of 16 Carriage Guns, and 26 swivels, full of Men, who struck without firing a Gun; and in bring her down to Jamaica, off Port Morant, met with a Spanish Privateer of 6 Carriage and 10 Swivel Guns, which he also took, and brought them both in together. That his Majesty's Ship the Ascension, of 20 Guns, had on a Cruize, taken and brought into Jamaica, a very large French Ship of 36 Guns. And that a grand Fleet of about 60 or 70 Sail of Merchantmen, was to sail from Jamaica the Beginning of August, under Convoy of 5 or 6 Men of War. Capt. Smith was chased two Hours after he came out of Port Morant, by a French Privateer, but he having the Heels of her, got clear. The 17th of last Month, off Cape Francois, Capt. King saw 12 Sail of large Ships, which he imagin'd to be French Men of War.

About a Week ago Capt. Smith fell in with his Majesty's Ship the Wager, of 24 Guns, Capt. Forrest, who left Cape Breton about 4 Weeks before, bound by Order of the Hon. Commodore Warren, on a cruize as far as the Capes of Virginia, and from thence to this Port, where, we hear, she is station'd some time, in order to guard our Coasts. This Ship sail'd from Plymouth, the Beginning of May last, Convoy to a Newfoundland Fleet, and arrived at Louisburg just after the Surrender of that Place; altho' in the publick Prints we have not had the least Intelligence of her before.

Monday last one Peter Moor, was convicted at the Supreme Court of this Province, of uttering Counterfeit mill'd Pieces of Eight, knowing them to be such.

Boston, August 12.

On Tuesday last Capt. Hodges arrived here from Louisburg, by whom we have Advice, that on the 24th of last Month a French East-India Ship, very richly laden, from Bengal, was brought into that Port by two of his Majesty's Ships, viz. the Princess Mary and Canterbury. She was seen the Day before standing off and on, waiting for a Pilot, upon which the above mentioned Ships went out and brought her in. She is said to be 500 Tons, has 36 Guns, about 100 Men, and is thought to be worth Three Hundred Thousand Pounds Sterling. By this Ship there is Advice of three more that came from the Indies with her, and from whom she parted near the Cape of Good Hope, about three Months ago, all bound to Louisburg.

We hear that several Gentlemen are gone and going to Louisburg, to be present at the Sale of the said Ship and Cargo, expecting to buy great Pennyworths; and indeed it is questioned whether such a valuable Cargo was ever put up to Sale in such a Port before.

Some of the Men belonging to the above-mentioned Ship (who are now in Town) inform, that about a Month before they arrived at Louisburg, they met with a Spanish Galleon, homeward bound, in Distress, out of which they took a vast Quantity of Silver, it was said, near Five Millions of Pieces of Eight.

Last Thursday Capt. Tyng, in the Massachusetts Frigate, sailed for Louisburg. ...

August 13

 It is expected that a new Name, of Eng-lish Formation, will be shortly given to Louisburg, the Capital of Cape Breton, Island, and that Care will be taken to make it more lasting than that of Cumberland Harbour, in the Island of Cuba.

On Saturday last 24 Pieces of Brass Cannon, on which were engrav'd the Words Cape Breton, were shipped at Woolwich, for the Use of that Place. And at the same Time 24 Matroses, 6 Gunners, and 8 Bombardeers, were draughted out of the Train, who will speedily embark for Cape Breton.

[August 13, 1745 ]

The following Report, from the Committee appointed to find out Ways and Means for raising the Sum of two Thousand Pounds Current money of Maryland, and applying the same to his Majesty's Service for Support of the Garrison of Louisburg at Cape Breton, being read, the House concurs therewith. By the Committee appointed to find out Ways and Means for raising the Sum of two Thousand Pounds Current Money of Mary- land, and applying the same to his Majesty's Service, for Support of the Garrison of Louisburg at Cape Breton.

Your Committee conceive, that the most expeditious method for raising the said Sum, to render the same of Immediate use for the Purpose intended, is, that the Sum of two Thousand Pounds Cur- rent Money of this Province, be borrowed or taken out of the Office for emitting Bills of Credit, and that the said Sum be repaid into the said Office by the Ways herein after mentioned, viz. by reenacting such Part of the Act entituled, An Act for the raising and issuing money for maintaining his Majesty's Forces to be raised in this Province, and for transporting them to the Place of Rendezvous in the West Indies, as relates to Ordinary Licenses, and applying the Fines arising on them, to the Repayment of the said Sum, after having discharged the Sum by the said Act required: As also by a Duty of forty shillings on all Horses, imported by Land or Water into this Province, for Sale. All which your Committee humbly submit to the Consideration of your Honourable House.

Signed per Order E. Dorsey Ci. Com.

Ordered, That half a Ton of Gun Powder, and two and a half Ton of Lead, and leaden Bullets for the use of the Garrison of Louis- burg, and to be taken out of the publick Magazine, be inserted in the Bill for raising the Sum of two Thousand Pounds Current Money, for his Majestys Service, for Supporting the Garrison of Louisburg at Cape Breton, over and above the said two Thousand Pounds. And Ordered, That the Committee of Laws prepare and bring in a Bill accordingly.

Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly of Maryland, Lower House, Assembly Proceedings, August 5-September 28, 1745, Volume 44, p. 80.

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Britain's Mercies, and Britain's Duty
George Whitefield

Preached at Philadelphia, on Sunday, August 14, 1746 and occasioned by the suppression of the late unnatural rebellion.
Psalm 55:45 - "That they might observe his statutes and keep his laws."

Men, brethren, and fathers, and all ye to whom I am about to preach the kingdom of God, I suppose you need not be informed, that being indispensably obliged to be absent on your late thanksgiving day, I could not show my obedience to the governor's proclamation, as my own inclination led me, or as might justly be expected from, and demanded of me. But as the occasion of that day's thanksgiving is yet, and I trust ever will be, fresh in our memory, I cannot think that a discourse on that subject can even now be altogether unseasonable. I take it for granted, further, that you need not be informed, that among the various motives which are generally urged to enforce obedience to the divine commands, that of love is the most powerful and cogent. The terrors of the law ma affright and awe, but love dissolves and melts the heart. "The love of Christ," says the great apostle of the Gentiles, "constraineth us." Nay, love is so absolutely necessary for those that name the name of Christ, that without it, their obedience cannot truly be stiled evangelical, or be acceptable in the sight of God. "Although, (says the apostle) I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burnt, and have not charity," (i.e. unless unfeigned love to God, and to mankind for his great name's sake, be the principle of such actions, howsoever it may benefit others) it profiteth me nothing." This is the constant language of the lively oracles of God. And, from them it is equally plain, that nothing has a greater tendency to beget and excite such an obediential love in us, than a serious and frequent consideration of the manifold mercies we receive time after time from the bands of our heavenly Father. The royal psalmist, who had the honor of being stiled, "the man after God's own heart," had an abundant experience of this. Hence it is, that whilst he is musing on the divine goodness, the fire of divine love kindles in his soul; and, out of the abundance of his heart, his mouth speaketh such grateful and ecstatic language as this, "What shall I render unto the Lord for all his mercies? Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy name." And why? "who forgiveth all thine iniquities, who healeth all thy diseases, who redeemeth thy life from destruction, who crowneth thee with loving kindness and tender mercies." And when the same holy man of God had a mind to stir up the people of the Jews to set about a national reformation, as the most weighty and prevailing argument he could make use of for that purpose, he lays before them, as it were, in a draught, many national mercies, and distinguishing deliverances, which have been conferred upon and wrought out for them, by the most high God. The psalm to which the words of our text belong, is a pregnant proof of this; it being a kind of epitome or compendium of the whole Jewish history: at least it contains an enumeration of man signal and extraordinary blessings the Israelites had received from God, and also the improvement they were in duty bound to make of them, "Observe his statues and keep his laws."

To run through all the particulars of the psalm, or draw a parallel (which might with great ease and justice be done) between God's dealings with us and the Israelites of old; To enumerate all the national mercies bestowed upon, and remarkable deliverances wrought out for the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, from the infant state of William the Norman to their present manhood, and more than Augustan ____ [unreadable even on micor-fiche!], under the auspicious reign of our rightful Sovereign King George the second; howsoever pleasing and profitable it might be at any other time, would, at this juncture, prove, if not an irksome, yet an unreasonable undertaking.

The occasion of the late solemnity, I mean the suppression of a most horrid and unnatural rebellion, will afford more than sufficient matter for a discourse of this nature, and furnish us with abundant motives to love and obey that glorious Jehovah, who giveth salvation unto kings, and delivers his people from the hurtful sword.

Need I make an apology, before this auditory, if, in order to see the greatness of our late deliverance, I should remind you of the many unspeakable blessings which we have for a course of years enjoyed, during the reign of his present Majesty, and the gentle, mile administration under which we live? Without justly incurring the censure of giving flattering titles, I believe all who have eyes to see, and ears to hear, and are but a little acquainted with our public affairs, must acknowledge, that we have one of the best of Kings. It is now above nineteen years since he began to reign over us. And yet, was he seated on a royal throne, and were all his subjects placed before him, was he to address them as Samuel once addressed the Israelites, "Behold here I am, old and gray-headed, witness against me before the Lord, whose ox have I taken? Or whose ass have I taken? Or whom have I defrauded? Whom have I oppressed?" They must, if they would do him justice, make the same answer as was given to Samuel, "Thou hast not defrauded us, nor oppressed us." What Tertulius, by way of flattery, said to Felix, may with the strictest justice be applied to our sovereign, "By thee we enjoy great quietness, and very worthy deeds have been done unto our nation by thy providence." He has been indeed Peter Patria, a father to our country, and though old and gray-headed, has jeopardized his precious life for us in the high places of the field. Nor has he less deserved the great and glorious title, which the Lord promises, that kings should sustain in the latter days, I mean, "a nursing father of the church." For not only the Church of England, as by law established, but all denominations of Christians whatsoever, have enjoyed their religious as well as civil liberties. As there has been no authorized oppression in the state, so there has been no publicly allowed persecution in the church. We breathe indeed in free air? As free (if not better) both as to temporals and spirituals, as any nation under heaven. Nor is the prospect likely to terminate in his majesty's death, which I pray God to defer. Our princesses are disposed of to Protestant powers. And we have great reason to be assured, that the present heir apparent, and his consort, are like minded with their royal father. And I cannot help thinking, that it is a peculiar blessing vouchsafed us by the King of kings, that his present Majesty has been continued so long among us. For now, his immediate successor (though his present situation obliges him, as it were, to lie dormant) has great and glorious opportunities, which we have reason to think he daily improves, of observing and weighing the national affairs, considering the various steps and turns of government, and consequently of laying in a large fund of experience, to make him a wise and great prince, if ever God should call him to sway the British scepter. Happy art thou, O England! Happy art thou, O America, who on every side art thus highly favored!

But, alas! How soon would this happy scene have shifted, and a melancholy gloomy prospect have succeeded in its room, had the revels gained their point, and a popish abjured pretender been forced upon the British throne! For, supposing his birth not to be spurious, (as we have great reason to think it really was) what could we expect from one, descended from a father, who, when Duke of York, put all Scotland into confusion; and afterwards, when crowned King of England, for his arbitrary and tyrannical government, both in church and state, was justly obliged to abdicate the throne, by the assertors of British liberty? Or, supposing the horrid plot, first hatched in hell, and afterwards nursed at Rome, had taken place? Supposing, I say, the old Pretender should have obtained the triple crown, and have transferred his pretended title (as it is reported he has done) to his eldest son, what was all this for, but that, by being advanced to the popedom, he might rule both son and subjects with less control, and by their united interest, keep the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, in greater vassalage to the see of Rome? Ever since this unnatural rebellion broke out, I have looked upon the young Pretender as the phaeton (vehicle) of the present age. He is ambitiously and presumptuously aiming to seat himself in the throne of our rightful sovereign King George, which he is no more capable of keeping, than Phaetan was to guide the chariot of the sun; and had he succeeded in his attempt, like him, would only have set the world on fire. It is true, to do him justice, he has deserved well of the Church of Rome, and, in all probability, will hereafter be canonized amongst the noble order of their fictitious saints. But, with what an iron rod we might expect to have been bruised, had his troops been victorious, may easily be gathered from these cruel orders said to be found in the pockets of some of his officers, "Give no quarters to the Elector's troops." Add to this, that there was great reason to suspect, that, upon the first news of the success of the rebels, a general massacre was intended. So that if the Lord had not been on our side, Great Britain, not to say America, would, in a few weeks or months, have been an Akeldama, a field of blood.

Besides, was a Popish pretender to rule over us, instead of being represented by a free parliament, and governed by laws made by their consent, as we now are; we should shortly have had only the shadow of one, and it may be no parliament at all. This is the native product of a Popish government, and what the unhappy family, from which this young adventurer pretends he descended, has always aimed at. Arbitrary principles he has sucked in with his mother's milk, and if he had been so honest, instead of that immature motto upon his standard, Tandem triumphant, only to have put, Sret pro ratient Vahmitat, he had given us a short, but true portrait of the nature of his intended, but blessed be God, now defeated reign. And why should I mention, that the sinking of the national debt, or rending away the funded property of the people, and the dissolution of the present happy union between the two kingdoms, would have been the immediate consequences of his success, as he himself declares in his second manifesto, dated from Holy-read House? These are evils, and great ones too; but then they are only evils of a temporary nature. They chiefly concern the body, and must necessarily terminate in the grave.

But, alas! What an inundation of spiritual mischiefs, would soon have overflowed the Church, and what unspeakable danger should we and our posterity have been reduced to in respect to our better parts, our precious and immortal souls? How soon would whole swarms of monks, dominicans and friars, like so many locusts, have overspread and plagued the nation; with what winged speed would foreign titular bishops have posted over, in order to take possession of their respective fees? How quickly would our universities have been filled with youths who have been sent abroad by their Popish parents, in order to drink in all the superstitions of the church of Rome? What a speedy period would have been put to societies of all kinds, for promoting Christian knowledge, and propagating the gospel in foreign parts? How soon would have our pulpits have every where been filled with these old antichristian doctrines, free-will, meriting by works, transubstantiation, purgatory, works of supererogation, passive-obedience, non-resistance, and all the other abominations of the whore of Babylon? How soon would our Protestant charity schools in England, Scotland and Ireland, have been pulled down, our Bibles forcibly taken from us, and ignorance every where set up as the mother of devotion? How soon should we have been deprived of that invaluable blessing, liberty of conscience, and been obliged to commence (what they falsely call) catholics, or submit to all the tortures which a bigoted zeal, guided by the most cruel principles, could possibly invent? How soon would that mother of harlots have made herself once more drunk with the blood of the saints? And the whole tribe even of free-thinkers themselves, been brought to this dilemma, either to die martyrs for (although I never yet heard of one that did so) or, contrary to all their most avowed principles, renounce their great Diana, unassisted, unenlightened reason? But I must have done, lest while I am speaking against antichrist, I should unawares fall myself, and lead my hearers into an antichristian spirit. True and undefiled religion will regulate our zeal, and teach us to treat even the man of sin with no harsher language than that which the angel gave to his grand employer Satan, "The Lord rebuke thee."

Glory be to God's great name! The Lord has rebuked him; and that too at a time when we had little reason to expect such a blessing at God's hands. My dear hearers, neither the present frame of my heart, nor the occasion of your late solemn meeting, lead me to give you a detail of our public vices. Though, alas! They are so many, so notorious, and withal of such a crimson-dye, that a gospel minister would not be altogether inexcusable, was he, even on such a joyful occasion, to lift up his voice like a trumpet, to show the British nation their transgression, and the people of America their sin. However, though I would not cast a dismal shade upon the pleasing picture the cause of our late rejoicings set before us; yet thus much may, and ought to be said, that as God has not dealt so bountifully with any people as with us, so no nation under heaven has dealt more ungratefully with Him. We have been like Capernaum, lifted up to heaven in privileges, and for the abuse of them, like her, have deserved to be thrust down into hell. How well soever it may be with us, in respect to our civil and ecclesiastical constitution, yet in regard to our morals, Isaiah's description of the Jewish polity is too applicable, "The whole head is sick, the whole heart is faint; from the crown of the head to the sole of our feet, we are full of wounds and bruises, and putrifying sores." We have, Jeshurun-like, waxed fat and kicked. WE have played the harlot against God, both in regard to principles and practices. "Our gold is become dim, and our fine gold changed." We have crucified the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. Nay, Christ has been wounded in the house of his friends. And every thing long ago seemed to threaten an immediate storm. But, O the long-suffering and goodness of God to us-ward! When all things seemed ripe for destruction, and matters were come to such a crisis, that God's praying people began to think, that though Noah, Daniel and Job, were living, they would only deliver their own souls; yet then in the midst of judgment the Most High remembered mercy, and when a popish enemy was breaking in upon us like a flood, the Lord himself graciously lifted up a standard.

This to me does not seem to be one of the most unfavorable circumstances which have attended this mighty deliverance; nor do I think you will look upon it as a circumstance altogether unworthy your observation. Had this cockatrice indeed been crushed in the egg, and the young Pretender driven back upon his first arrival, it would undoubtedly have been a great blessing. But not so great as that for which you lately assembled to give God thanks; for then his Majesty would not have had so good an opportunity of knowing his enemies, or trying his friends. The British subjects would in a manner have lost the fairest occasion that ever offered to express their loyalty and gratitude to the rightful sovereign. France would not have been so greatly humbled; nor such an effectual stop have been put, as we trust there now is, to any such further Popish plot, to rob us of all that is near and dear to us. "Out of the eater therefore hath come forth meat, and out of the strong hath come forth sweetness." The Pretender's eldest son is suffered not only to land in the North-West Highlands in Scotland, but in a little while he becomes a great band. This for a time is not believed, but treated as a thing altogether incredible. The friends of the government in those parts, not for want of loyalty, but of sufficient authority to take up arms, could not resist him. He is permitted to pass on with his terrible banditti, and, like the comet that was lately seen, spreads his baleful influences all around him. He is likewise permitted to gain a short-lived triumph by a victory over a body of our troops at Prestan-Pans, and to take a temporary possession of the metropolis of Scotland. Of this he makes his boast, and informs the public, that "Providence had hitherto favored him with wonderful success, led him in the way to victory, and to the capital of the ancient kingdom, though he came without foreign aid." Nay, he is further permitted to press into the very heart of England. But now the Almighty interposes. Hitherto he was to go, and no further. Here were his malicious designs to be staid. His troops of s sudden are driven back. Away they post to the Highlands, and there they are suffered not only to increase, but also to collect themselves into a large body, that having, as it were, what Caligula once wished Rome had, but one neck, they might be cut off with one blow.

This time, manner, and instruments of this victory, deserves our notice. It was on a general fast-day, when the clergy and good people of Scotland were lamenting the disloyalty of their persidious countrymen, and, like Moses, lifting up their hands, that Amalek might not prevail. The victory was total and decisive. Little blood was spilt on the side of the Royalists. And, to crown all, Duke William, his Majesty's youngest son, has the honor of first driving back, and then defeating the rebel-army. A prince, who in his infancy and youth, gave early proofs of an uncommon bravery and nobleness of mind; a prince, whose courage has increased with his years. Who returned wounded from the battle of Dettingen, behaved with surprising bravery at Fontenoy, and now, by a conduct and magnanimity becoming the high office he sustains, like his glorious predecessor the Prince of Orange, has delivered three kingdoms from the dread of popish cruelty, and arbitrary power. What renders it still more remarkable is, The day on which his Highness gained this victory, was the day after his birthday, when he was entering on the 26th year of his age; and when Sullivan, one of the Pretender's privy-council, like another Abitaphel, advised the rebels to give our soldiers battle, presuming they were surfeited and over-charged with their yesterday's rejoicings, and consequently unfit to make any great stand against them. But, glory be to God, who catches the wise in their own craftiness! His counsel, like Ahitaphel's, proves abortive. Both General and soldiers were prepared to meet them. "God taught their hands to war, and their fingers to fight," and brought the Duke, after a deserved slaughter of some thousands of the rebels, with most of his brave soldiers, victorious from the field.

If we then take a distinct view of this notable transaction, and trace it in all the particular circumstances that have attended it, I believe we must with one heart and voice confess, that if it be a mercy for a state to be delivered from a worse than a Catiline's conspiracy, or a church to be rescued from a hotter than a Dioclestan persecution; if it be a mercy to be delivered from a religion that turns plough-shares into swords, and pruning-hooks into spears, and makes it meritorious to shed Protestant blood; if it be a mercy to have all our present invaluable privileges, both in church and state secured to us more than ever; if it be a mercy to have these great things done for us, at a season, when for our crying sins, both church and state justly deserved to be overturned; and if it be a mercy to have all this brought about for us, under God, by one of the blood-royal, a prince acting with an experience far above his years; if any, or all of these are mercies, then have you lately commemorated one of the greatest mercies that ever the glorious God vouchsafed to the British nation.

And shall we not rejoice and give thanks? Should we refuse, would not the stones cry out against us? Rejoice then we may and ought: but, O let our rejoicing be in the Lord, and run in a religious channel. This, we find, has been the practice of God's people in all ages. When he was pleased, with a mighty hand, and out-stretched arm to lead the Israelites through the Red Sea, as on dry ground, "Then sang Moses and the children of Israel; and Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her. And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the Lord; for he hath triumphed gloriously." When God subdued Jabin, the King of Canaan, before the children of Israel, "then sang Deborah and Barak on that day, saying, "Praise ye the Lord for the avenging of Israel." When the ark was brought back out of the hands of the Philistines, David, though a king, danced before it. And, to mention but one instance more, which may serve as a general directory to us on this and such-like occasions: when the great Head of the church had rescued his people from the general massacre intended to be executed upon them by a cruel and ambitious Haman, "Mordecai sent letters unto all the Jews that were in all the provinces of the King Ahaserus, both nigh and far, to establish among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same yearly, as the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow unto joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor." And why should wee not to and do likewise?

And shall we not also, on such an occasion, express our gratitude to, and make honorable mention of, those worthies who have signalized themselves, and been ready to sacrifice both lives and fortunes at this critical juncture?

This would be to act the part of those ungrateful Israelites, who are branded in the book of God, for not showing kindness to the house of "Jerub-Baal, namely Gideon, according to all the goodness which he showed unto Israel." Even a Pharaoh could prefer a deserving Joseph, Ahasuerus a Mordecai, and Nebuchadnezzar a Daniel, when made instruments of signal service to themselves and people. "My heart, says Deborah, is towards (i.e. I have a particular veneration and regard for) the Governors of Israel that offered themselves willingly. And blessed above women shall Jael the wife of Heber the Kenite be; for she put her hand to the nail, and her right hand to the workman's hammer, and with the hammer she smote Sisera, she smote off his head, when she had pierced and stricken through his temples." And shall we not say, "Blessed above men let his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland be; for through his instrumentality, the great and glorious Jehovah hath brought might things to pass?" Should not our hearts be towards the worthy Archbishop of Tirk, the Royal Hunters, and those other English heroes who offered themselves so willingly? Let the names of Blakeney, Bland and Rea, and all those who waxed valiant in fight on this important occasion, live for ever in the British annals. And let the name of that great, that incomparable brave soldier of the King, and a good soldier of Jesus Christ, Colonel Gardiner, (excuse me if I here drop a tear; he was my intimate friend) let his name, I say, be had in everlasting remembrance.

But, after all, is there not an infinitely greater debt of gratitude and praise due from us, on this occasion, to Him that is higher than the highest, even the King of kings and Lord of Lords, the blessed and only Potentate? Is not his arm, his strong and mighty arm, (what instruments soever may have been made use of) that hath brought us this salvation? And may I not therefore address you, in the exulting language of the beginning of this psalm, from which we have taken our text? "O give thanks unto the Lord, call upon his name, make known his deeds among the people. Sing unto Him; sing psalms unto him; talk ye of all his wondrous works; glory ye in his holy name; remember his marvelous work which he hath done."

But shall we put off our good and gracious benefactor with mere lip- service? God forbid. Your worthy Governor has honored God in his late excellent proclamation, and God will honor him. But shall our thanks terminate with the day? No, in no wise. Our text reminds us of a more noble sacrifice, and points out to us the great end the Almighty Jehovah proposes, in bestowing such signal favors upon a people, "That they should observe his statutes, and keep his laws."

This is the return we are all taught to pray, that we may make to the Most High God, the Father of mercies, in the daily office or our church, "That our hearts may be unfeignedly thankful, and that we may show forth his praise, not only with our lips, but in our lives, by giving up ourselves to his service, and by walking before him in holiness and righteousness all our days." O that these words were the real language of all the use them! O that these were in us such a mind! How soon would our enemies then flee before us? And God, even our own God, would yet give us more abundant blessings!

And why should not we "observe God's statutes, and keep his laws?" Dare we say, that any of his commands are grievous? Is not Christ's yoke, to a renewed soul, as far as renewed, easy; and his burden comparatively light? May I not appeal to the most refined reasoner whether the religion of Jesus Christ be not a social religion? Whether the Moral Law, as explained by the Lord Jesus in the gospel, has not a natural tendency to promote the present good and happiness of a whole commonwealth, supposing they were obedient to them, as well as the happiness of every individual? From when come wars and fighting amongst us? From what fountain do all those evil, which the present and past ages have groaned under, flow, but from a neglect of the laws and statues of our great and all-wise law-giver Jesus of Nazareth? Tell me, ye men of letters, whether Lycurgus or Solon, Pythagoras or Plato, Aristotle, Seneca, Cicero, or all the ancient lawgivers and heathen moralists, put them all together, ever published a system of ethics, any way worthy to be compared with the glorious system laid down in that much despised book, (to use Sir Richard Steel's expression) emphatically called, the Scriptures? Is not the divine image and superscription written upon every precept of the gospel? Do they not shine with a native intrinsic luster? And, though many things in them are above, yet, is there any thing contrary to the strictest laws of right reason? Is not Jesus Christ, in scripture, stiled the Word, the Logos, the Reason? And is not his service a reasonable service? What if there be mysteries in his religion? Are they not without all controversy great and glorious? Are they n9ot mysteries of godliness, and worthy of that God who reveals them? Nay, is it not the greatest mystery, that men, who pretend to reason, and call themselves philosophers, who search into the arcana natura, and consequently find a mystery in every blade of grass, should yet be so irrational as to decry all mysteries in religion? Where is the scribe? Where is the wise? Where is the disputer against the Christian revelation? Does not every thing without and within us, conspire to prove its divine original? And would not self-interest, if there was no other motive, excite us to observe God's statutes, and keep his laws?

Besides, considered as a Protestant people, do we not lie under the greatest obligations of any nation under heaven, to pay a cheerful, unanimous, universal, persevering obedience to the divine commands.

The wonderful and surprising manner of God's bringing about a Reformation, in the reign of King Henry the Eighth; his carrying it on in the blessed reign of King Edward the Sixth; his delivering us out of the bloody hands of Queen Mary, and destroying the Spanish invincible armads, under her immediate Protestant successor Queen Elizabeth, his discovery of the popish plot under King James; the glorious revolution by King William, and, to come nearer to our own times, his driving away four thousand five hundred Spaniards, from a weak (though important) frontier colony, when they had, in a manner, actually taken possession of it; his giving us Louisbourg, one of the strongest fortresses of our enemies, contrary to all human probability, but the other day, into our hands: these, I say, with the victory which you have lately been commemorating, are such national mercies, not to mention any more, as will render us utterly inexcusable, if they do not produce a national Reformation, and incite us all, with one heart, to keep God's statutes, and observe his laws.

Need I remind you further, in order to excite in you a greater diligence to comply with the intent of the text, that though the storm, in a great measure, is abated by his Royal Highness's late success, yet we dare not say, it is altogether blown over?

The clouds may again return after the rain; and the few surviving rebels (which I pray God avert) may yet be suffered to make head against us. We are still engaged in a bloody, and, in all probability, a tedious war, with two of the most inveterate enemies to the interests of Great- Britain. And, though I cannot help thinking, that their present intentions are so iniquitous, their conduct so persidious, and their schemes so directly derogatory to the honor of the Most High God, that he will certainly humble them in the end, yet, as all things in this life happen alike to all, they may for a time, be dreadful instruments of scourging us. If not, God has other arrows in his quiver to smite us with, besides the French King, his Catholic Majesty, or an abjured Pretender. Not only the sword, but plague, pestilence, and famine, are under the divine command. Who knows but he may say to them all, "Pass through these lands?" A fatal murrain has lately swept away abundance of cattle at home and abroad. A like epidemical disease may have a commission to seize our persons as well as our beasts. Thus God dealt with the Egyptians: who dare say, he will not deal so with us? Has he not already given some symptoms of it? What great numbers upon the continent have been lately taken off by the bloody-flux, small-pox, and yellow-fever? Who can tell what further judgments are yet in store? However, this is certain, the rod is yet hanging over us: and I believe it will be granted on all sides, that if such various dispensations of mercy and judgment do not teach the inhabitants of any land to learn righteousness, they will only ripen them for a greater ruin. Give my leave, therefore, to dismiss you at this time with that solemn awful warning and exhortation, with which the venerable Samuel, on a public occasion, took leave of the people of Israel: "Only fear the Lord, and serve him in truth, with all your heart: for consider how great things he hath done for you. But if ye shall still do wickedly, [I will not say as the Prophet did, You shall be consumed; but] ye know not but you may provoke the Lord Almighty to consume both you and your king." Which God of his infinite mercy prevent, for the sake of Jesus Christ: to whom, with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, three persons, but one God, be all honor and glory, now and for evermore. Amen, Amen.

[Source: Added to Bible Bulletin Board's "Whitefield Collection" by:

Tony Capoccia, Bible Bulletin Board, Box 119, Columbus, New Jersey, USA, 08022
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[August 14, 1745 ]

Wednesday Morning, August 14. 1745

The House met according to Adjournment. All Members present as Yesterday. The Proceedings of yesterday were read.

A Question being put, Whether it shall be in a Clause in the Bill to be brought in for raising the Sum of two Thousand Pounds Cur-rent Money for his Majesty's Service; for supporting the Garrison of Louisburg at Cape Breton, that the sum of Sterling, be paid for every Hogshead of Tobacco to be exported out of this Province, for the Payment of an Agent in Great Britain, for the Service of the said Province, subject to the Appointment and Disposal of the House of Delegates of the said Province, or not? It was resolved in the Affirmative.

For the Affirmative

Mr Abell Mr Mackall Mr Pearce Jno Gresham Courts Hyland Richd Gresham Smallwood Paca Harris Harrison Buchanan Carrol Wm Wilkinson Wootton Phil. Hammond Stoughton Sprigg Worthington N. Goldsborough Addison Hen. Hall Thomas T. Wilkinson Jos. Hall J. Goldsborough T. Hammond Brome Hooper Hopper

For the Negative

Mr Bond Mr Ennalls Mr Gordon Barnes Lecompte Bordley Mills Sullivane Pemberton King George Purnell Dennis Colvil Selby Lloyd John Hall Outten

The House adjourns to 2 of the Clock

Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly of Maryland, Lower House, Assembly Proceedings, August 5-September 28, 1745, Volume 44, p. 81.

[ ]

Philadelphia, August 15.

... There is a Report in Town, said to come from Rhode Island, Via Brunswick, that a French India Man is Carried into cape breton, but this waits for Confirmation. ...

August 17

 There is now shipping in the River about forty Pieces of  Iron Ordnance, from 32 to 24 Pounders, with a suitable Proportion of Gunners, and other Warlike Stores; together with several Masons, Smiths, Brick-layers, and other Artificers, al which are designed for the Defencde of our late important Acquisition of Cape Breton

The Government will give Encouragement of 10 l. a Piece to such Women as are inclinable to go to be married, and live at Cape Breton, and a Piece of Ground to such Children as may be born in such Wedlock; a vast Number of Women have already been to the proper Office in the Towerto enter their Names; they receive 4 l. here to buy proper Conveniences, and 6 l. more when they arrive at that Place.

Sir William Pepperell, Bart, is to be made a Brigadier General, and likewise to have a Regiment given him; we hear the said Gentleman is going on some other grand Enterprise.

Admiral Warren is appointed Governor of Cape Breton, and the Commission is dispatched to that Island.

Philadelphia, August 22.

The following Notification from Commodore Warren, is published here by Order to the Governor. Louisburg, July 25. 'Whereas a very valuable French East India Ship from Bengal, called the Charmont, was lately taken by two of his Majesty's Ships of Commodore Warren's Squadron, and is brought into this Port, having on board a large Quantity of Muslings of various Sorts, plain and embroidered, and all other Sorts of Cottons, a large Quantity of Handkerchiefs, of various Sorts, for Men and Women, plain and embroidered, Seersuckers, a large Quantity of raw Silk and Kirman Wool, Table Linnen, a large Quantity of Pepper, and a Variety of other valuable Merchandize, yet unknown; This is therefore to notify all Persons inclining to purchase any of said Goods, that the above- mentioned Ship and Cargo will be condemned in this Port, and the Sale of said Cargo will begin in about a Month from this Date. P. WARREN. We hear from Maryland, that the Assembly of that Province have voted 2000 £. Currency, to be laid out in Provisions for the Garrison at Louisburg; also Half a Ton of Powder, and Three Tons and a Half of Ball. We hear also, that the Governor and Council of Virginia have given 1500 £. Sterling to New England on the same Account, and that it was expected the Assembly when met would give another Sum. Capt. Green from Providence, informs us, that the Havannah Galley, taken some Time ago by Capt. Dennis, and now commanded by Captain Thompson, has taken and brought in there, two French Prizes, a Ship and Sloop, chiefly laden with Wine, Rum and Brandy. Tuesday last two of the Trembleur Privateer's Men quarralled at a Game of Cards, and went to Fighting; one of them died soon after. The Coroner's Inquest were of Opinion, that the Man being much enflamed with Liquor, the Violence of his Exercise in Fighting broke some Blood Vessel inwardly, and occasioned his Death. Monday last the General Assembly of this Province met here.

[August 22, 1745 ]

Thursday Morning August 22. 1745

The House met according to Adjournment, The Proceedings of Yesterday were read.

The House adjourns to 2 of the Clock.

Post Meridiem

The House met according to Adjournment.

The Bill entituled, An Act for raising the sum of three Thousand Pounds Current Money, and two pence Sterling per Hogshead, for his Majesty's Service towards supporting the Garrison of Louisburg on Cape Breton, and for other Purposes therein mentioned, was sent to the Upper House by Mr Philip Hammond, and thirteen others, with the following Message, ( See page 15)


Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly of Maryland, Lower House, Assembly Proceedings, August 5-September 28, 1745, Volume 44, p. 90

[August 23, 1745 ]

Ordered, That the Bill entituled, An Act for raising the Sum of three Thousand Pounds, Current Money, and two Pence Sterling per Hogshead, for his Majesty's Service, towards supporting the Garrison of Louisburg on Cape Breton, and for other Purposes therein mentioned, with the Indorsements thereon, be printed, and made a Part of the Journal of this House. Which is as follows, viz. An Act for raising the sum of three Thousand Pounds Current Money, and two Pence Sterling per Hogshead, for his Majesty's Service, towards supporting the Garrison of Louisburg on Cape Breton, and for other Purposes therein mentioned, Whereas, we have certain Advice that the Town of Louisburg on Cape Breton is, with it's Dependencies, by his Majesty's Subjects of New England, with the Assistance of Part of the British Fleet, reduced to his Majesty's Obedience; and that for the Preservation thereof, an immediate Supply of Provision, and other Necessaries are wanting: We therefore his Majesty's faithful and loyal Subjects, the Delegates of the Free men of Maryland, in General Assembly convened, freely, willingly, and chearfully to promote his Majesty's Service, by contributing towards the Preservation of the said Con- quest against the common Enemy, so far as the Circumstances and Ability of the People of this Province will admit, humbly pray that it may be enacted.

And be it enacted by the right honourable the Lord Proprietor, by and with the Advice and Consent of his Lordships Governour, and the Upper and Lower Houses of Assembly, and the Authority of the same, that the Sum of Three Thousand Pounds in Bills of Credit of this Province, Part of the publick Money in the hands and Custody of the Commissioners or Trustees for emitting Bills of Credit, established by Act of Assembly, be and is hereby enacted, appointed declared, and appropriated, to be taken up, paid and applied by the Persons and in manner hereafter mentioned, in the buying fit and necessary Provisions for his Majesty's Service, towards sup- porting and maintaining the Garrison of Louisburg on Cape Breton And be it further enacted by the Authority, Advice, and Consent aforesaid, that Col. Thomas Colvil, Mr Richard Gresham, Capt. Bartholomew Ennalls Capt. David Willson, and Capt. William Hopper, be and are hereby constituted and appointed Agents for this Province, to execute and perform the several and respective Matters and Things contained and mentioned in this Act, according to the Tenor thereof, in manner hereafter expressed.

And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said Col. Thomas Colvil Mr Richard Gresham, Capt Bartholomew Ennalls, Capt. David Willson, and Capt. William Hopper, or any three of them, be and hereby impowered and authorized to take and receive of and from the said Commissioners, or Trustees, for emitting Bills of Credit, established by Act of Assembly, the Sum of three Thou- sand Pounds Current money, in the said Bills of Credit, to be ap- plied and laid out within this Province by them the said Col. Thomas Colvil, Mr Richard Gresham, Capt. Bartholomew Ennalls, Capt. David Willson, and Capt. William Hopper, or any three of them, in such Provisions as may be most suitable and convenient for support of his Majesty's Garrison of Louisburg on Cape Breton, aforesaid, and at the cheapest Rates that the markets will admit of. And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said Commissioners or Trustees for emitting Bills of Credit, established by Act of Assembly, be and they are hereby impowered and directed to pay unto them the said Col. Thomas Colvil, Mr Richard Gresham, Capt. Bartholomew Ennalls, Capt. David Willson, and Capt. William Hopper, Agents as aforesaid, or any three of them, the said Sum of three thousand Pounds; and to take the Receipt or Order of them the said Agents, or any three of them, for their Justification. And that the said Commissioners or Trustees shall, and they are hereby directed to state an Account in the Books of the Office of the said Commissioners or Trustees aforesaid, by charging the Province of Maryland Debtor for the use of this Act, with the several Payments by them to be made to the Agents aforesaid, by virtue, and in Pursuance of this Act.

And be it further Enacted, that his Excellency Thomas Bladen Esqre do, by virtue of this Act, immediately upon the passing and perfecting the same, write to his Excellency William Shirley Esqre Governour of the Massachusets Bay, at Boston, acquainting him that the Sum of three Thousand Pounds has been by the General Assembly of this Province provided and appropriated to his Majesty's Service, for Purchase of suitable Provisions towards supporting the Garrison of Louisburg at Cape Breton; as also half a Ton of Gun Powder, and two Ton and an half of Lead and Leaden Ball: And that this Province not being supplied with suitable Vessels for the safe freighting the said Provision and Ammunition, request he will order proper Vessels to be sent from Boston for the same; and likewise to know at what Time such Vessel or Vessels may be expected. And that such Vessels may be adequate to the Tonnage, Quantity of such Provision, Be it further Enacted, that the said Agents, or any three of them, do and shall, and they are hereby directed, to give to his said Excellency Thomas Bladen Esqre three Lists or Schedules of such Provision, and the Quantities and Qualities as they think may be the readiest had within this Province, to the Amount of the said Sum of three Thousand pounds, for the Service aforesaid; including in the said Schedules the said Powder and Lead for the Purpose aforesaid.

And be it further Enacted, that immediately upon Notice, or Return of an Answer from his said Excellency William Shirley Esqre of the Time when such Vessel or Vessels may be expected into this Province, that his Excellency Thomas Bladen Esqre or the Commander in Chief here for the Time being, do and they are hereby impowered to order the said Agents, or any three of them, to purchase the said Provisions in the aforesaid Lists or Schedule mentioned, or such of them as he the said William Shirley Esqre shall direct for his Majesty's Service, towards Support of the Garrison of Louisburg aforesaid, and put the same, with the said Powder and Lead, on board such Vessel or Vessels as aforesaid; which said Powder, Lead, and leaden Ball, shall be and is hereby directed to be taken out of the publick Magazine of this Province.

And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said Agents, or any three of them shall be and they are hereby impowered and directed, immediately upon Notice or Order to them given by his said Excellency Thomas Bladen Esqre or the Commander in Chief for the Time being, to proceed to the purchasing the said Provisions for his Majesty's Service, towards Support of the Garrison of Louisburg aforesaid, agreeable to the Lists or Schedules aforesaid, and the Directions of the said William Shirley Esqre and to the full Amount of the Sum of three Thousand Pounds current money aforesaid, deducting the Commission hereafter mentioned, and other incident charges; and when so purchased, the same, with the said Gun Powder, Lead, and leaden Balls, ship, or order to be shipped, on board such Vessel or Vessels as shall be so as aforesaid sent by his said Excellency Governour Shirley for the same; and when so shipped, and put on board, to take four Bills of Lading for the same, expressing therein Shipped by the Province of Maryland, for his Majesty's Service, towards support of the Garrison of Louisburg at Cape Breton, and consigned to his Excellency William Shirley Esqre at Boston in usual Form; and one of the said Bills to send by such Vessel or Vessels as carry the said Provision and Ammunition, as also one by Post to his said Excellency William Shirley Esqrc at Boston; as also return one to the House of Delegates of this Province, at the next meeting of a General Assembly after shipping the same; and the other keep for the Justification of such Agents.

And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said Agents, or any three of them shall, and they are hereby directed to keep a fair Account of what Purchase they shall make, in pursuance and according to the Direction of this Act, and of whom particularly made; as also of all the Moneys which they shall receive from the said Commissioners out of the Office aforesaid, and the Time when received, and Orders drawn for the same to whom, and at what Time; a fair Copy of which Account they the said Agents, or any three of them, are hereby ordered and directed to return to the House of Delegates of this Province, at the next General Assembly to be held after the Purchase and Shipping of the Provisions aforesaid, for the Service herein before mentioned ....

Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly of Maryland, Lower House, Assembly Proceedings, August 5-September 28, 1745, Volume 44, pp. 95-98

Boston, August 26.

... Last Tuesday arrived here Capt. Oliver in 12 Days from Eustatia, by whom we are inform'd, That by the latest Accounts from Martineco, there was no Men of War at that Island; but that a Fleet of 9 Sail of French Merchant-men were bound from thence to cape breton; three of which had sail'd under Convoy of two Frigates, which were to leave them when they had got in Lat. 28, and proceed to the Havannah: The Remainder were taking in their Cargoes of Sugar, &c....

[August 29, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred...
Entred Out.

Brigantine Industry, George Spafford, for cape breton....
-------- Endeavour, William Rice, for cape breton. ...

New York, September 2.

... They had received Advice in England, by the Way of France, of the surrender of cape breton to our Forces, with the Addition, that the French have taken the Packet which had been sent Express with the Account thereof; but that the News had met with but slender Credit in England, as perhaps thinking the first Part of it too good to be true, however bad the last may be. ...

... Extract of a Letter from Glasgow, dated Sept. 3.

Mr. Laclan McLear, a Merchant in this Town, has a Letter from Mr. Hector McLear his Friend at Edinburgh, advising, That he had seen Lieut. Campbell who was at Helvoetsluys, who says, That 70 Transports were to sail from thence eight Days ago, with 9000 Dutch and Austrians, who were engaged by Capitulation not to fight against the French till 18 Months be elapsed; and were therefore lent to our King to defend his Territories at Home. ---- The People about Dumbarton are much alarm'd; and some have carried their Goods into the Castle.

... Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman at Louisbourg,
dated September 4, 1745.

"Last Saturday about Noon a Ship came in Sight from the Eastward, as tho' she was coming into the harbour; but after drawing near, she sometimes put upon the Wind, sometimes went before it, as uncertain what to do; but at last passed by before the Wind to the Westward: This occasioned great Speculation, some taking her for a French Indiaman; others for a Frenchman in general, others for an Englishman: The wind being Easterly, which blows directly into the Harbour, none of the Men of War got out: The next Day Capt. Spry in the Commodore's Sloop, and Richardson in the Sloop formerly Donahew's, went out in quest of her, thinking she designed for the Gut of Canso: In the Night it rain'd, blew hard, and was very dark, so that the two Sloops parted: Towards Morning, being yet very dark, Richardson standing to the Westward, had like to have run foul of a Vessel standing to the Eastward; but having cleared himself of her, he tacked abut, and followed her till it was light, when he came up with her, took her, and brought her in. She is the same Vessel that went by on Saturday, and proves to be a Ship from Carolina, bound for London, which abut 3 Weeks ago fell in with a Squadron of Men of War, abut 150 Leagues to the Eastward of the Banks of Newfoundland, bound from France to this Place, who took her and sent her in here. The following is the List of the Ships that composed that Squadron, viz. Le Mars, 66 Guns, 650 Men, Mons. Perrier, Commandant. St. Michael, 64 Guns, 650 men. Le Parfaite, 46 Guns, 450 Men, Mons. De Vivier. L'Argonaut, 46 Guns, 450 Men. Le Gellete, 32 Guns, 280 Men, Le Renomee, 32 Guns, 280 Men. Le Tomar, 32 Guns, 280 Men. (The Le Renomee is the same Ship that run the Gantlope in the Spring.) the Orders to be the Commander that the French put aboard, were wrote by Mons. Jean, and signed by D. Vivier: Delabrotz is the second Captain of the same Vessel. --- Our Ships are vastly superior to them, we having five 60 and one 50 Gun Ship. Small Vessels are sent every Way to get Intelligence of them; and there is nothing we are afraid of, but that they should find out how Things stand here, and get away from us; nay, if they were four times as many, and we had not a Man of War here, we should be heartily glad to see them, provided they were determined to attempt coming into the Harbour.

Upon Advice of the French Squadron's intended Visit, and a Complaint that his Majesty's Ships in the Harbour wanted Men, we hear, that five or six hundred of the Garrison went immediately on board voluntarily, and the Ships were anchored at the Harbour's Mouth, ready to put to Sea on the first Advice of the Enemy's Approach.

On Saturday a Sloop arrived in 7 Days from Louisburg, by whom we are informed, that they had heard nothing more of the French Squadron, tho' they had very late Advices from Newfoundland, Annapolis Royal, &c. so that it was feared the Monsieurs had got Intelligence of the Surrender of Louisburg, and were gone to Canada or the Wet Indies, or else put back to France.

[September 5, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred ...

Sloop Sea Flower, Andrew Langworthy, to cape breton.
----- Indian King, Gilbert Albertson, to cape breton....
-------- Endeavour, William Rice, to cape breton.

[September 5, 1745]

Just Published, and to be sold by William Bradford, in Second Street, THE Necessity of praising God, for Mercies received: A Sermon, occasioned by the Success of the Late Expedition, in reducing the City and Fortress of Louisburg on Cape Breton, to the Obedience of his Majesty. By Gilbert Tennant, A.M.

[September 5, 1745]


A Message from the GOVERNOR to the Gentlemen of
the Assembly.


THE Occasion of my calling you together so soon after your Adjournment, is a Letter I received last Week by Express from Governor Clinton, informing me of some late Transactions between the French Governor of Canada, and the United Nations of Indians, in their Treaty at Montreal, and inviting this Government to send Commissioners to Albany, (where he proposes to meet the Indians on the 4th of the next Month) furnished with proper Means for retaining them in their Fidelity to his Majesty, and their Engagements with the respective British Colonies.

When I reflect on the long approved Faith of these People, their grateful Acknowledgments for the Protection from time to time received from the English against the Attempts made by the Enemy to enslave them, and on the solemn Assurances, given to me at the late Treaty of Lancaster, to observe a strict Neutrality in the present War, and to maintain inviolably their Friendship with the British Colonies, I am not easy to entertain Suspicions to their Prejudice. But upon recollecting what passed in a private Conversation between one of the most politick of their Sachims and our Interpretere, when he was last at Onontago, I am not without Apprehensions, that the Success of his Majesty's Arms at Cape Breton may induce them to throw themselves into the French Scale, in order to preserve the Ballance. --- For that Indian Sage said, "That however meanly they may be thought of, they were not unacquainted with their own true Interests; and therefore would not join with either Nation in the War, unless compelled to it for their own Preservation: That hitherto, from their Situation and Alliances, they had been courted by both; but should either prevail so far as to drive the other out of the Country, they should be no longer considered, Presents would be no longer made to them, and in the End they should be obliged to submit to such Laws, as the conquerors should think fit to impose on them." The French governor has artfullly suggested the same Things, and their Acceptance of a Belt of Wampum from him, with the Figure of a Hatchet wrought in it, tho' it be but to deliberate upon it, is a Mark of some Degree of Approbation, and by no Means a good Omen to us. There is but one probable Method of securing them in our Interest, and that is to perswade them, by outbidding the enemy, to an open Declaration for us.

---Money, notwithstanding their Reasoning, having been always the prevailing argument with them. Should the present Opportunity be lost, it is much to be feared, that the Intrigues of the French in the ensuing Winter will seduce and intirely alienate them from us. But supposing the best of them, that their Inclinations are with us, and that they are still resolved to observe a Neutrality, if their Allies break it, and take up the Hatchet against us, they must either join them, or fly to us for Protection; which can be no way so effectually secured to them, as by an Union of all the British Northern Colonies for that Purpose.

--- This is a Matter which very nearly concerns the Quiet and Safety of the People of Pennsylvania; and as such I recommend it to your most serious Consideration, and have ordered the Letter referred to, with some other Papers, to be laid before you for your more particular Information.

The Secretary will likewise deliver to you another Letter, received since the Writs were issued, from the Government of the Massachusetts, renewing their Application for an Aid of Men, Arms and Ammunition, as absolutely necessary for the Defence of Louisburg, against the Attempts, which they apprehend will be made by the Enemy, to recover it. The Mortification must be very great to every Lover of his Country, should so noble an Acquisition be wrested out of our Hands, for want of a small Share of that Spirit in the other Colonies to preserve it, which inspired the People of New England to undertake and compleat the Conquest of it. 

September 5, 1745. ....

[September 7, 1745]

... The Assembly's Answer to the GOVERNOR'S Message,

May it please the GOVERNOR,

SINCE "some late Transactions between the French Governor of Canada, and the United Nations of Indians, in their Treaty at Montreal," have given Umbrage to our neighbouring Government, as well as Cause to apprehend the Dangers which may arise from thence, we esteem our being called together on so important an Occasion, as a fresh Instance of the Governor's Care of the Inhabitants of this Province, who are nearly concerned in the Consequences, and may therefore justly expect from us "the serious Consideration recommended to us."

"The long approved Faith of these People, their grateful Acknowledgments for the Protection from time to time received from the English against the Attempts made by the Enemy to enslave them; the solemn Assurances lately given the Governor to observe a strict Neutrality in the present War, and to maintain inviolably their Friendship with the British Colonies, are good Reasons against the easy entertaining Suspicions to their Prejudice:" And yet, since there is some Cause to apprehend Danger from the Influence of the French, we think it highly necessary prudent Measures be taken "for retaining these Indians in their Fidelity to his Majesty, and their Engagements with the respective British Colonies."

If the Governor's Health would permit him to attend at the next Treaty appointed at Albany, it would be the most agreeable Method to us, as well as, in our Opinion, the most effectual. But as we are informed the Governor's Indisposition is likely to deprive us of these Advantages, we approve of the Commissioners the Governor has been pleased to nominate to negotiate this Affair; and it shall be our Care to provide a Sum of Money for defraying their Expences, and for purchasing such a Quantity of Goods as will, we hope, be sufficient to present to the Indians at this Time, expecting it will be necessary to make an additional One on their coming hither next Spring.

As to the Application last made by the Government of Massachusetts, we think the Sum of Money we lately gave, and which is applied to their Use, should excuse us from any further Provision, at least for this time.

The last Letter the Governor gave Directions to be laid before us gives us fresh Concern; for tho' the Shawnese are thought perfidious, and not well affected towards the Inhabitants of this Province, yet as the Attempt made by the Six Nations to cut them off will introduce War on our Frontiers, it affords but a disagreeable Prospect. If the Account of the Warriors of the Six nations going against the Catawbaes be true, contrary to their late Agreement, perhaps the Government of Virginia may justly expect Notice should be given them to prevent the Catawbaes being destroyed by Surprize.

The Necessity of the Commissioners to attend the Treaty at Albany, with the Present proposed to be made to the Indians of the Six Nations, is by this last Account render'd more conspicuous, as it appears requisite to remove the Prejudices they may have imbibed, and may cultivate a good Understanding with them.
Signed by Order of the House,


7th Month, 7, 1745.

New York, September 9.

Thursday last his Excellency our Governor was pleased to issue a Proclamation, prohibiting all Traffick and Correspondence between his Majesty's Subjects of this Province, and all Indians in League with the French.

By a Vessel arrived last Week from Port Royal in S. Carolina, we have Advice, that a few Weeks ago, a Ship belonging to Philadelphia was taken on the Coast of Carolina, by a Spanish Privateer, who put some Hands on board her with others to carry her to Augustine; but some bad Weather coming on soon after, they lost their Way, and unwittingly fell in with Georgia, where the Vessel was immediately retaken, and all the Spaniards made Prisoners.

Saturday Night last an Express arrived here from Boston, to his Excellency our Governor; the Contents whereof are as yet a Secret; but common Fame says, there is Advice come of the safe Arrival of the Hector Man of War at Louisburg, with his Excellency Governor Shirley and Madam Warren on board, but that they began to be in pain for the Superbe, who was gone on a Cruize, and had outstaid her Time considerably: There is also Advice, that the French and Indians in their small Craft, have lately taken several Coasting Vessels off the Cape Sable Shore, in Calms; that being a Place which Vessels bound to Cape Breton frequently fall in with, and subject to Calms; the Indians lie there in wait, and when they see any Vessel becalmed, sally out, and overpower all they can. 'Tis likewise said, that another rich Prize has been lately carried into Louisburg; but that the Markets there, for all sorts of Provisions are exceeding low.

Boston, September 9.

Last Week several Vessels arrived from Cape Breton, by whom we have the agreeable News of the safe Arrival of his Excellency our Governor at Louisburg, on the 16 August past, to the inexpressible Joy of the Garrison, who had a considerable time impatiently expected his coming, and whose Presence was found absolutely necessary among them. His Excellency was saluted upon his Arrival, by a Discharge of the Cannon in the City, and the most joyful Acclamations of the Soldiers, who being under Arms, received his Excellency at his landing, and conducted him to the Citadel, and the Day was spent in Demonstrations of Joy suitable to the Occasion.

Saturday last the Massachusetts Frigat, Capt. Tyng Commander, arrived here in 6 Days from Louisburg, with whom came several of the Members of his majesty's Council, some of the Officers of the Garrison, and other Gentlemen. By this Ship we have Advice, that our Troops have plenty of all sorts of fresh Provision, Roots, Greens, &c. at a moderate Price, there being a vast Number of Vessels in the Harbour from the Continent. That the Hector Man of War was gone to Newfoundland, to take under her Convoy such Vessels as are ready to sail for Lisbon; and that the mermaid was gone to Virginia, to take care of the Ships that may be ready to sail for Great Britain, and is to touch at Louisburg in her way home. 'Tis also said that Commodore Warren was preparing to sail for England with several of the Ships under his command, and that he will take with him the two East-Indiamen and S. Sea Ship lately fallen into his Hands, having taken on board the Men of War, the Treasure found on board the South Sea-man, which proves vastly more than was at first reported.

We hear Capt. Tyng will sail again for Louisburg in a few Days, and will carry with him the Clothing preparing here for the poor Soldiers (who are in great want of it) and other Stores for the Garrison.
Yesterday Lieutenant Proctor arrived here in a small Schooner from the Eastward, and brought with him an Indian Prisoner known by the Name of Col. Job, which he took in the following Manner, viz. On the first inst. being at Georges, and understanding that a Number of Indians had been lately seen near the Fort, he mustered up 16 Men and Boys from the Block-House, and went in quest of the Enemy. About 12 o'Clock at Night, and 3 Miles from the Fort, they discovered four Indians about a Fire, upon whom they discharged their Guns, and had the good Fortune to kill Col. Sam, and Lieutenant Governor Moxus (as he was called) and took Col. Job Prisoner, but the other Fellow made his Escape. These three Indians were principal Men of the Penobscut Tribe, and all well known in Boston. Our People were informed by the Prisoner, that a great Body of Indians were at a small Distance from Georges, and had agreed to attack the Place the next Day.

[September 12, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred ...
Cleared. ... Brigt. Industry, John Green, to cape breton. ...

Philadelphia, September 12.

... Last Week the Assembly of this Province sat, and voted 250l. to be laid out in Goods and presented to the 5 Nations at the Treaty to be held at Albany on the 4th of next Month; from whence we learn, that the French in Canada were in the utmost Consternation when they heard of the Loss of cape breton; and that on a false Alarm, by an Express who was but one Night between Quebeck and Montreal, the Governor left the latter Place immediately to go to the Defence of the former with 1000 Men, and ordered half the Militia to follow him with all Expedition. That Governor is said to have taken a great deal of Pains to debauch the Indians from the English Interest, but, we hope, our ensuing Treaty will render all his Endeavours fruitless.

New York, September 16.

... Three of our Trading Vessels arrived here last Week from cape breton, who all confirm the Account of the Markets being exceeding low there for Provisions, and neither Goods nor Cash to be got for them; and that they were obliged to leave most of their Effects stored there unsold. They inform us, that the Superb was safe arrived there from her Cruize.

Tuesday last arrived at Sandy Hook, His Majesty's Ship Wager, Capt. Forrest Commander, from Virginia, with two Vessels under Convoy for cape breton; and on Saturday last sail'd again, in order to proceed on his Voyage.

September 17, 1745

"List of men in Moses Pearson's company now in Louisburg, the places of their abode and circomstances, Sept. the 17th., 1745.

Ensign James Springer, Falmouth, has a wife and several small children, ye oldest very young.

Sargent Axel Roberts, Falmouth, an old man, unfit for duty.

Sargt. Phillip Hodkins, Falmouth, a large family of young children, his two sons with him.

Sargt. Joshua Illesley, Falmouth, a single man, his affairs require him to be at home.

Corll. Jon. Emerson, Falmouth, infirm and unfit for duty.

Corll. David Woodman, Falmouth (missing words)

Joshua Simpson, Falmouth, Ebenezer Lincoln, these three with J. Illsley all come out of one house and belong to one famley.

Samll. Clark, Falmouth, his wife and childen in poor curcomstances.

James Gilkey, Falmouth, Jos. Thorn, Falmouth, these two out of my famley.

J. Thorn, my servant and Gilkey by the year.

John Ayer, Falmouth, infirm and not fit for duty.

John Anderson, Falmouth, a single man.

Jacob Cliffod, Falmouth, sickly and unfit for duty.

Moses Gould, Falmouth, apprentice, his master lives in the woods, exposed to the enemy.

Moses Hodkins, Falmouth, Samll. Hodkins, Falmouth, sons of Phillip Hodkins above.

Samuel Graves, Falmouth, a very man. His poor father (John) wants him very much at home.

A true copy

[Source: ] - Portland's Early History Reviewed by Mr. Nathan Goold

[September 19, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred  ...

Entred Out....
Brigt. Louisburg, Richard Budden, for Jamaica. ...

Boston, September 23.

Last Wednesday Capt. Clark arrived here in 14 Days from Louisburg, who brought about 60 sick Men belonging to that Garrison, several of whom died on the Passage; and being near Cape Sable, Capt. Clark sent his Boat ashore well armed to bury one of their dead, but just as they were about to land, the Indians from the Bushes fired upon his Men, and wounded five of them; one had both his Arms broke, one of them in two Places, and was also shot in the body, but none of them were kill'd. They reckon they kill'd one of the Indians, who was fired at, and seen to fall ...

At a Council held at the place aforesaid the same Members present on Tuesday September 24th, 1745.

His Honor the President acquainted the Board that having further considered the purport of his letters from Louisbourg that he had desired Erasmus James Philipps and Edward How Esqrs to speak to Joseph LeBlanc prisoner now in irons and to sift him whether he would undertake to discover or find out by his friends what was doing or expected to be done in the country either in regard to Monsieur Marin, the Canadians and Indians or what was expected and hoped for by them and the inhabitants in regard to assistance from France, and as Mr. Philipps and Mr. How had reported that he said LeBlanc was willing to do all the service in his power for this His Majesty's Government upon condition of being enlarged His Honor therefore desired the advice and opinion of the Board.

Which being seriously considered the Board was of opinion that upon his doing any such real and signal service he should have his enlargement.

Signed P. Mascarene

[Source: Minutes of H. M. Council, 1736-1749, Annapolis Royale in , © Lucie LeBlanc Consentino Acadian & French Canadian Ancestral Home 2006 - Present]

... Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman at Louisburg, to his
Friend in Boston, September 25, 1745.

On the 23d Inst. arrived her Capt. Rouse from England, with Dispatches for the Governor, the General, and Commodore Warren. The King has made the General a Baronet of Great Britain: and 'tis said Mr. Warren will be one also, who is recommended by the Lords Justices to the King for Governor of this Place, and is made Rear Admiral of the Blue: He hoisted his Flag Yesterday Afternoon on board the Superbe, when he was saluted by the Ships in the Harbour, and the Grand Battery. There hath been great Rejoicings in London on the taking this Place. Two Regiments from Gibraltar are ordered here this Fall to Garrison the Place, and it is proposed to establish some of the New England Forces, how many I cannot tell. They have ordered Small Arms for all the Soldiers that shall stay here, and Cloathing; 34 Cannon, 32 and 24 Pounders, 100 Wall Pieces, 2000 spare Arms, a Train of Artillery, and 2 Engineers. The King was not returned from Hanover, but expected every Day. --- The French have carried all before them in Flanders. --- Capt. Rouse tells me, that two Days before he sail'd they had an Account, that they had taken Ostend also. There had not been any Court Martial on the Mediteranean Business, but it was expected when Admiral Vernon return'd from his Cruize. The Lieutenant of the Anglesea was shot for giving up the Ship. --- Mr. Warren is ordered to buy Rouse's Snow, and give him a Commission ...

Sept. 26, 1745

The following is a perfect list of the establishment of officers and men in the expedition against Louisbourg, : pass'd the Great and General Court, in their session in March 1744 [1745 New Style]. [Boston : s.n., 1745] [- Followed by a resolve of the General Court, for paying the officers and troops at Louisbourg, dated Sept. 26, 1745. Signed: Examin'd per J. Wheelwright.]

[September, 26, 1745]


In the House of Representatives, Sept. 26, 1745. Voted, That there be and hereby is granted to be paid out of the publick Treasury, to each Searjeant and Centinel in his Majesty's Service in the Garrison of Louisburg, which his Excellency the Governor and Captain-General shall determine to be the proper Quota of this Province, of the Troops necessary to be continued there during the Winter Season, the Sum of 25 s. per Month, over and above their present Allowance, from the first of October to the first of May next. Sent up for Concurrence. In Council, Sept. 26. 1745. T. Cushing, Speaker. Read and concurr'd. J. Willard, Secr. Consented to S. PHIPS. By a Vessel arrived at Marblehead in a short Passage from Barbados we hear, That they had publick Rejoicings there for three or four Days upon the News of taking of Cape Breton: And that a Number of Gentlemen there had made a generous Collection for the Relief of the poor Widows and Children of those brave Men who were lost with Capt. Smithurst in this Province Snow on that Expedition; and they have sent by this Vessel 6 Hogsheads of Rum and 16 Barrels of Sugar. A noble Instance of Charity, from Strangers at such a Distance, worthy of Imitation! We have also Advice from Barbados, that Capt. E. Kingston, who sailed from this Port some time since for the West Indies, in a Brig. was taken by a French Privateer 8 Days after he went out, and 24 Days after that was retaken by a Ship of 20 Guns belonging to Philadelphia, called the Pandour, but the Master and all the Men except two were on board the Privateer. That the Pandour also took a French Privateer Sloop with 137 Men, which with the Brig. she carried into Barbadoes the 30th Aug. last. And that the following Men of War, with 8 Transports, commanded by Admiral Townsend, and about 4000 Soldiers, arrived at Barbados the 30th of August, but where they were bound could not be learnt, viz. Dorsetshire, Tole, 80 Guns, 620 Men; Princessa, Lingen, 70 Guns, 650 Men; Ipswich, Maynard, 70 Guns, 480 Men; Lenix, Lawrence, 64 Guns, 480 Men; Worcester, Andrews, 60 Guns, 400 Men; Pembroke, Balchen, 60 Guns, 400 Men; Hampshire, Daniel 50 Guns and 300 Men. 'Twas said the 50 Gun Ship was to sail for Antigua the 3d Sept. for the Men of War there. From Jamaica we learn, that his Majesty's Ship the Plymouth of 60 Guns, out of Jamaica, has taken a large Spanish Privateer Ship, commanded by Capt. Grachoche of 36 Guns, 350 Men, fitted out of the Havannah last Spring, and is the same, who, with others we so often heard of last Summer, was on the Coast of Carolina and Virginia; he had taken between fifty and sixty Sail of English this Summer: This is the Ship that took Capt. Spry, &c. Yesterday Capt. Tyng, in the Massachusetts Frigate, sail'd for Louisburg, with Cloathing and Stores for the Garrison; as did likewise a large Snow with a Flag of Truce for France. His Majesty's Store-Ship the Bien Amie, will sail the first fair Wind.

Boston, October 7.

By Capt. John Rouse who arrived at Louisburg the 25th Instant, in 28 Days from Great Britain, we have Advice, That on the Arrival of Capt. Montague, who went Express with the news of the Surrender of Louisburg, the Lords Commissioners of the admiralty made him a Present of 500 Guineas; and that General Rejoicings had been made thro' all the Kingdom. That Advice thereof was forthwith sent to his Majesty at Hanover; who thereupon expressed the highest Satisfaction, and commanded it to be signified to the Commanders and others who were instrumental therein: And in Testimony how acceptable this important Acquisition is to his Majesty, a Patent was sent from Hanover creating Mr. Pepperrell a Baronet of Great Britain; and it is said he also is to command a Regiment on the British Establishment: Mr. Warren is also made Rear-Admiral of the Blue, and recommended by the Lords Justices to be Governor of the Place, and his Commission therefor will be sent over by the next Opportunity. His Grace the Duke of Newcastle has in a most affectionate Manner express'd the just Sense the Nation has of the Service of the New-England Troops; that it will reflect everlasting Honour on the Country; and happening when Affairs in Europe were in so bad a Situation, it will still the more endear them to his Majesty. It is certain, that 2000 regular Troops will embark from Europe this Fall, with 100 Pieces of Cannon, Powder and other warlike Stores, sufficient for the Defence of that Place; which is also a strong Proof of its Importance. The Admiral to encourage the Settlement thereof is determined to deep Bullion enough to give a Currency. And as it is situated so advantageously for the Fishery, it is not doubted but People will find it for their Interest to settle there ...

Boston, October 8.

Last Monday Capt. Smithurst in the Brigantine Boston Pacquet Boat, one of the Boston Guard de Costas, arrived here from Annapolis Royal, for which Place she sailed 17 Days ago, as Convoy to a Transport Vessel carrying Capt. Gorham and his Company of Indian Rangers, rais'd here for the Succour of that Garrison. Upon the Arrival of these Soldiers, they found the Garrison had been many Days besieg'd by a Party of Regular Troops detach'd from Louisbourg under the Command of Monsieur Duvivier, who commanded at the taking of Canso, which were join'd by the Indians, who had before besieg'd the Fort, and retir'd to Menis, upon the Arrival of the first Company of Auxilliaries from this Place, but had now with several other Indians, and some few of the Inhabitants, join'd Monsieur Duvivier; this second Attack of the Fort had kept the Garrison upon Duty Day and Night, and occasion'd 'em to make frequent Firings; the French having prepar'd a great Number of Scaling Ladders, and threatened to make a general Assault; after some Time Monsieur Duvivier sent a Flag of Truce to Major Mascarene commanding Officer at the Fort, and in a Letter acquainted him that he daily expected three French Men of War from Louisbourg, one of 70, another of 56, and another of 30 Guns, with a large Transport, and 250 more Troops, and Mortars and other Stores to attack the Garrison both by Sea and Land, and propos'd to him to agree that he would surrender upon the Arrival of those Ships at Annapolis upon honourable Terms; to which an Answer was return'd from the Garrison, that it would be Time enough for Monsieur Duvivier to propose Terms to 'em, when the Ships and Forces arriv'd. Afterwards the Garrison had a Parly for four or five Days successively with Monsieur Duvivier's Brother commissionated by the French Commander for that Purpose, which had broke off in a Day or two before the Arrival of Capt. Gorham and his Reinforcement, and Hostilities were renewed between the French and the Garrison: But upon Capt. Gorham's Arrival Monsieur Duvivier retir'd with the French and Part of the Indians under his Command to Menis, leaving a Body of 150 Indians behind to cover his Retreat, in Case of a Pursuit by the Troops of the Garrison. During the Stay of Monsieur Duvivier in the Neighbourhood of the Garrison, the Inhabitants of Annapolis River were laid under Contributions by them; and all Communication between the Inhabitants and the Garrison was entirely cut off; but on the Retreat of the French the Inhabitants immediately sent Deputies to the Garrison to assure them of their Fidelity; and a Communication for fresh Provisions is again open'd. We also hear, his Excellency having order'd Capt. Smithurst to assist the Garrison in getting their Wood in, he went with some Vessels upon that Duty, during which Time the Indians made a strong Fire upon them with their Small Arms from the Shore under Shelter of Banks thrown up to keep the Sea out, which was return'd from the Vessels: And Capt. Allen of this Town had the Misfortune to be kill'd with a Musket Ball, as he was at the Helm of his Sloop. We are also inform'd that a small Skirmish happen'd whilst Capt. Smithurst was there, between a Party from the Garrison and the Enemy, in which one of the English Grenadiers received a Shot in his Thigh; and another Soldier was wounded, and three of the Enemy kill'd; that in this Action some of the Indian Rangers concern'd in it, behav'd with Resolution and Fidelity; but one of them, viz. a Pigwaket Indian being in Liquor, advanc'd too far among the Enemy, and was taken. This is the second Time of the New England Auxiliaries arriving at Annapolis Royal in a most criticle Time for the Succour of the Garrison; whose Spirits are exceedingly reviv'd by the Arrival of this last Reinforcement, having been before exceedingly harrass'd by continual Duty. The French Commander gives out that he shall Winter in Menis with 1200 Troops: But Gasconades will not take the Place.

Thursday last Capt. Smithurst sail'd on a Cruize, with several Ships under his Convoy bound for Europe.

Saturday last about 30 of the Men taken with Capt. Gatman at Newfoundland, arrived in a Schooner at Ipswich.

We hear that a Man was lately taken found murdered in Narraganset, who had just received a considerable Sum of Money, and was known to have travelled some Way with two Irishmen.

[October 10, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred ...
Entred Out.

Snow Friendship, Henry Lisle, for London.
Sloop Swallow, John Stevens, for cape breton. ...


----- Swallow, John Stevens, to cape breton. ....

Philadelphia, October 10.

By the London News Papers we find, that there are several Pamphlets published there, setting forth the great Advantages of cape breton to the English. ...

Philadelphia, October 10.

... That the Allied Army continued in their Camp near Brussels, where on the 30th of July a general Discharge of the Artillery and Small Arms was made on account of the taking cape breton, ... ... From Barbados we have Advice, that the Fleet under Admiral Townsend, having taken in Four Months Provisions, was gone down to Antigua to join Commodore Lee's Squadron; 'tis added that 6 French Men of War of the Line are arrived at Martineco, supposed to be the Ships that were designed for cape breton. And that the French Privateer Sloop which was carried into that Island by the Pandour, ...

October 11, 1745

By the Honourable Spencer Phips, Esq; ... A proclamation. : Whereas divers persons have received beating orders for the raising the recruits for his majesty's garrison at Louisbourg ... Given at the Council chamber in Boston, the eleventh day of October 1745. 

[October 22, 1745]

... But the great item of domestic intelligence, which confronts us under various forms in the pages of this Magazine, is the siege and capture of Louisburg, and the reduction of Cape Breton to the obedience of the British crown,--an acquisition for which his Majesty was so largely indebted to the military skill of Sir William Pepperell, and the courage of the New England troops, that we should naturally expect to find the exploit narrated at length in a contemporary Boston magazine ... Farther on, we have another example of military eloquence in a "Letter from a Superior Officer at Louisburgh, to his Friend and Brother at Boston," dated October 22, 1745 ...

[October 24, 1745]

The Government will give Encouragement of 10 £. a Piece to such Women as are inclinable to go to be married, and live at cape breton, and a Piece of Ground to such Children as may be born in such Wedlock; a vast Number of Women have already been to the proper Office in the Tower to enter their Names; they receive 4 £. here to buy proper Conveniencies, and 6 £. more when they arrive at that Place.

Sir William Pepperrell, Bart. is to be made a Brigadier General, and likewise to have a Regiment given him; we hear the said Gentleman is going on some other grand Enterprize.

Admiral Warren is appointed Governor of cape breton, and the Commission is dispatched to that Island.

From the American Magazine for December, 1746. 

A Letter from WILLIAM SHIRLEY, Esq; Governor of Massachusetts-Bay, to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle; With a Journal of the Siege of Louisbourg, and other Operations of the Forces, during the Expedition against the French Settlements on cape breton; drawn up at the Desire of the Council and House of Representatives of the Province of Massachusetts-Bay; approved and attested by Sir WILLIAM PEPPERELL, and the other principal Officers who commanded in the said Expedition. Published by Authority. Printed at London, 1746.

A Letter from WILLIAM SHIRLEY, Esq; Governor of Massachusetts-Bay, to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, &c.

Louisbourg, October 28, 1745.

My Lord Duke,

THE council and house of representatives of the province under my government, having taken occasion, in a late address to me, to desire, that upon my arrival here, "I would give orders, that a full account of the proceedings of the New England forces raised under my commission, for the reduction of cape breton, during the late siege of this place, to the time of its surrender, should be transmitted in the most effectual manner, and as soon as possible to his Majesty;" I have caused the inclosed account of their proceedings and services, from their first landing at Canada, to the time of the surrender of this place, to be taken upon the spot, from persons who were privy to every part of the transactions, and to be laid before Sir William Pepperrell, and other principal officers of the army, for their perusal and attestation; and am persuaded, from my own observations upon the spot, as well as the accounts of these gentlemen, that it contains a just representation of the conduct and behaviour of the troops in the reduction of this place; and now take the liberty to transmit it to your Grace, pursuant to the assembly's request to me. The sum of this account is, That the New England troops having sailed from Canso the 29th of April, till which Time they were detained there by the unusual quantity of ice, in Cheppeaurouge Bay, came to an anchor the next morning, between 9 and 10, in the bay, at the distance of about 2 miles from Flat-Point-Cove, where, being discovered by the enemy, a party of about 150 men were detached from Louisbourg, under the command of Capt. Morepang, and M. Boularderie, to oppose their landing: That General Pepperrell having made a feint to land a party in boats at the Cove, in order to draw the enemy thither, did, by a signal from the vessels, cause those boats suddenly to row back, and join another party of boats under his stern, out of which were landed, at 2 miles distance from the Cove, about one hundred of our men, before the enemy could come round to oppose them, who, notwithstanding the enemy had the advantage of being covered by their woods, attacked them so briskly, that they killed six of them upon the spot, took as many prisoners (among whom was M. Boularderie) wounded several more, and, after exchanging some shot, put the rest to flighty (some of whom were taken prisoners the next day) with the damage sustained on our side, of only 2 men being slightly wounded: That 2000 of the troops were landed the same day, and the remainder, being near 2000 more, the day following: That on the next day, a detachment of 400 of our men marched round to the north-east harbour, behind the range of hills there, where they burnt all the enemy's houses and stores in that neighbourhood, at the distance of about a mile from the grand battery, at the distance of about a mile from the grand battery, whereby such a terror was struck into them, that the same night they deserted that battery, leaving the artillery, consisting of 28 cannon of 42 lb. shot, and 2 of 18 lb. and the ordnance stores belonging to it (except their powder, which they threw into a well) so precipitately, that they only spiked up their cannon in a slight manner, without knocking off any of the trunnions, or doing any other damage to them, and but very little to the carriages: That the next morning, being the 3d of May, a party of about fifteen or sixteen of our men discovered that the enemy had abandoned the grand battery, and drove off a party of them, which attempted to re-land that morning in boats, That notwithstanding an incessant fire from the enemy's cannon and mortars in the town, at the distance of 5913 feet from it, and, from the island battery, at the distance of 4800 feet, our troops, by the next day, cleared 3 of the cannon in the grand battery, which pointed against the town, and returned their fire upon the enemy there, and also from other of the guns, which pitted against the island battery, and were, by degrees, unspik'd in a few days: That our troops, within the compass of 23 days from the time of their first landing, erected 5 fascine batteries against the town, consisting of cannon, some of 42 lb. shot, others of 22 lb. and others of 9 lb. mortars of thirteen, eleven, and 9 inches diameter, with some cohorns; all which were transported by hand, with incredible labour and difficulty, and most of them above 2 miles, all the ground over which they were drawn, except small patches, or hills of ricks, being a deep morass, in which, whilst the cannon were upon wheels, they several times sunk so deep, as not only to bury the carriages, but the whole body of the cannon likewise: Horses and oxen could not be employed in this service, but all must be drawn by men themselves, up to the knees in mud at the same time; the nights in which the work was to be done, cold and foggy, their tents bad, there being no proper materials for tents to be had in New-England, at the outset of the expedition: But notwithstanding these difficulties, and many of the people's being barefooted, and almost without cloaths, by means of this service, in which they had worn them out, and their being taken down with fluxes, so that at one time there were fifteen hundred men incapable of duty, occasioned by their fatigue, they wen ton chearfully without being discouraged, or murmuring, and, by the help of fledges, transported the cannon and mortars, over these ways, which the French had always thought impassable for such heavy Weights, and was indeed impracticable by any people of less resolution and perseverance, or less experience in removing heavy bodies; and besides this, they had all their provisions and heavy ammunition, which they daily made use of, to bring from the camp over the same way upon their backs.

To annoy our people in making their approaches, and carrying on their batteries, the enemy erected new works, where they mounted some cannon, from whence, as well as from the cannon of other batteries, and from their mortars, they continually maintained a strong fire, till their cannon was silenced by being dismounted, or having their men beat off by our cannon.

The most advanced of our 5 batteries, which was finished on the 17th of May, was within the distance of 250 yards from the west gate of the town; so that from this battery several of the enemy were killed by our musketry, as were of our men of the enemy's from the walls; and indeed this battery was so near the enemy's works, that our men were obliged to load the cannon there under the fire of their musketry, which was very sharp on both sides, the enemy generally opening the action every morning with the fire of their small arms upon this battery for two hours, which was constantly returned with advantage on our side. The execution done from these, and the grand battery, was very considerable: The west gate was intirely beat down, the wall adjoining very much battered, and a breach made in it at about 10 feet from the bottom of the wall. The circular battery, of 16 cannon, 24 pounders, near the west gate (and the principal one against ships next to the grand battery, and island battery) was almost intirely ruined, and all the cannon but three dismounted. Their North-east battery, consisting of two Lines of 42 and 32 pounders, in all 17 cannon, another principal battery against ships was damaged, and the men beat off from their guns. The west flank of the king's bastion belonging to the Citadel, and the battery there of six 24 pounders, which pointed to the land-side, and greatly annoyed our works, was almost demolished. Two cavaliers of two 24 pounders, each raised during the siege, and 2 other cannon of the same weight of metal, run out at two embrazures, cut through the parapet near the west-gate at the same time (all pointing against our batteries) were damaged and silenced. The citadel was very much damaged; several houses in the city intirely demolished, and almost every one more or less hurt; and Maurepas Gate, at the easternmost part of the city, shatter'd: And as cross fires from the cannon and mortars, and even from our musketry, ranged through the houses and streets in every part of the city, and through the enemy's parades, whereby many were killed, it drove the inhabitants out of their houses into casmates, and other cover'd holds, where they were obliged to take refuge for several weeks: And besides this, the fire from the grand battery damaged also the barracks of the island battery.

During this time our parties of scouts so thoroughly ranged the woods, that they seldom returned without bring in some prisoners, which very much confined the enemy within their walls, who were constantly worsted in all skirmishes, and repulsed in every sally that they made, and frequently by an inferior number of our men, and with very little loss, upon these occasions sustained on our side, the chief of which was a party of 18 of our men straggling contrary t orders, being surprized and cut off by a large number of Indians, and another of nine, coming on shore out of one of the cruizers, to water without their arms, being likewise surprized and cut off by some Indians. That on the 26th of May, after some ineffectual preparations for making an attack upon the enemy's Island battery, which is a strong fort built on a rocky island, at the Entrance into the harbour, mounted with 30 cannon of 28 lb. shot, and having several swivel guns upon its breast-work, and two brass 10 inch mortars, and 180 men, it was at night attempted by a party of 400 of our men in boats; but from the strength of the place, and the advantage which the enemy had by being under cover, and our men exposed in open boats, the surf running high, our men not being thoroughly acquainted with the best place for landing, and the enemy besides (as is most probably) being apprized of their design, they were repulsed with the loss of having about 60 killed and drowned, and 116 taken prisoners; yet under these disadvantages several of them advanced within the enemy's battery, and maintained a fight with them for some time before they surrendered, and killed some of them: That it being judged of the most Consequence to make ourselves masters of the Island battery, as it was thought extremely dangerous for his Majesty's ships to have entered the harbour till the enemy could be annoyed in that battery; and it being after the last attempt thought impracticable to reduce it by boats, it was determined to erect a battery near the Light house opposite to it, at 3400 feet distance from it; and the same was, by the 11th of June, notwithstanding the almost insuperable difficulties, which attended the drawing of the cannon up a steep bank and rock, raised in such a manner, as not to be exposed to more than four of the enemy's cannon, and at the same time to flank a line of above 20 of their guns, and two eighteen pounders were on that day mounted, and began to play, and by the 14th of June, four more cannon of eighteen pound shot were added, and on the 15th, a mortar of 13 inches diameter was removed thither, out of which 19 bombs were thrown, 17 whereof fell within the Island battery, and one of them upon the magazine; and this together with the fire from our cannon, to which the enemy was very much exposed, they having but little to shelter them from the shot, which ranged quite through their line of barracks, so terrified them, that many of them left the fort, and ran to the water for refuge. And now, the Grand Battery being in our possession, the Island battery (esteemed by the French the Pailadium of Louisbourg) so much annoyed from the Light-house battery, that they could not entertain hopes of keeping it much linger; the enemy's North-east battery being damaged, and so much exposed to the fire from our advanc'd battery, that they could not stand to their guns; the Circular battery ruined, and all its guns but three dismounted, whereby the harbour was disarmed of all its principal batteries; the West-gate of the city being demolished, and a breach made in the adjoining wall; the west flank of the King's bastion almost ruined; and most of their other guns, which had been mounted during the time of the siege, being silenced; all the houses and other buildings within the city (some of which were quite demolished) so damaged, that but one among them was left unhurt; the enemy extremely harrassed by their long confinement within their casmates, and other covered holds, and their stock of ammunition being almost exhausted, Mr. Dauchambon sent out a flag of truce to the camp on the 15th day of June in the afternoon, desiring time to consider of articles of capitulation, which was accordingly granted them till next morning, when they sent articles in, which were rejected by the General and Commodore, and others proposed by them in their stead, and accepted by the enemy: And hostages being exchanged on the same day for the performance of the articles, on the 17th of June the city was surrendered to Mr. Warren and General Pepperrell, and the Garrison, consisting of about 650 regular troops, and the inhabitants of the city, being about 1300 effective men, besides women and children, made prisoners by capitulation, with the loss on our side of no more than 101 men killed by the enemy, and all other accidents, from the time of their landing to the reduction of the place, and about 30 who died of sickness.

I omit mentioning the breaking up of the settlements at St. Peters, and eight other fishing settlements upon this island; and the burning of several houses at St. John's island within the time of the siege, by companies put on board some of our cruizers.

By this representation of the services of his majesty's land-forces, I would not be understood to intend to exclude his Majesty's Ships from their just share in the reduction of this place. Mr. Warren, upon whom I very much depended from the beginning for assistance and success in this enterprize, did upon his receiving orders by his Majesty's sloop Hynd, the 9th of March, to proceed to Boston, and concert measures with me for the protection of Nova Scotia, and the annoyance of the enemy's settlements, &c. immediately proceeded with his Majesty's ships Superbe, Mermaid and Launceston, under his command, for Boston; but upon getting intelligence at sea of the departure of the New England land forces for Canso, tho' he was then within 30 leagues of Boston, without refreshments, or his compliment of ordnance stores, and one of his ships not very fit for immediate service, sail'd directly for that place; where having overtaken the forces, and conferred with the General by letter, upon his Majesty's service in the expedition; and it being thought adviseable by both, that the ships of war should directly proceed before Louisburgh harbour to cut off all supplies and intelligence from the enemy, immediately proceeded there, and most effectually blocked up the harbour; and by engaging and taking the Vigilant, a French ship of war of 64 guns, bound for Louisburgh, with some ordnance stores, cut off from the enemy all hopes of any supplies or succours, and gave great spirits to the land-forces in carrying on the siege; and afterwards upon his Majesty's ship Chester's arrival from England to reinforce him, and receiving advice that the Canterbury and Sunderland were following, determined to enter the harbour as soon as those ships should join him, and attack the town and batteries with his Majesty's ships, whilst the land-forces made an assault upon the city by land; which was agreed on, between Mr. Warren and the General, to be made the 16th of June, and the ships were accordingly cleared on the 15th of June, in order to enter the harbour, but were prevented by the enemy's making proposals for a capitulation: And indeed Mr. Warren offered his assistance for his majesty's service in every Shape.

It is unnecessary for me to trouble your Grace with a detail of the plans proposed during the siege for a more speedy reduction of the place; as far as I can judge, it was effected most happily in the manner which it was reduced in, as the success of the event was much more secure in this way; and it has cost fewer lives; and the place was gained without the least damage being done to any of his Majesty's ships.

I hope these services of the New England troops in the field, which seem to have equalled the zeal of the Massachusetts Council and Assembly within their province, for his Majesty's service, upon this occasion, may be graciously accepted by his Majesty, as a proof of that perfect duty and firm loyalty which, I am perswaded, all the colonies concerned in the reduction of this place (but especially that of the Massachusetts Bay, for which I can more particularly answer) bear to his majesty's sacred person, and to this government, and of their ready Disposition to promote the general welfare of his dominions: And I humbly beg of your Grace to lay this account before his Majesty, in such manner as your Grace shall think most proper.

Boston, October 28.

On the 20th Instant, the Gentlemen appointed by this Government to meet and treat with the several Tribes of Indians lately met at Albany, return'd in safety to this Town; and we are informed, that they found those Indians sincerely disposed to continue in Peace and Friendship with his Majesty's Subjects; --- that they readily renew'd their ancient Covenant with the several Governments that treated with them by their Delegates; --- that the Jealousies raised by the French in the Minds of those Indians some Time since, were entirely removed; --- and, that they are ready to take up the Hatchet against the French and Indian Enemy, as soon as the Governor of New York shall order it; who, 'tis said, only waits to hear from two Indian Tribes, who could not be present at the late Interview.

Last Wednesday Night Capt. Donnel arrived here from Louisburg, by whom we hear, that five of his Majesty's Ships of War were sail'd from thence for Great Britain, with the two East-India Ships under their Convoy; and that they had Orders to touch at Newfoundland, to take under their Convoy such Vessels as were bound home, having had Advice at Louisburg, of the French Squadron's being in some of the Northern Harbours of that Island.

'Tis said Admiral Vernon continued at Louisburg, with the Vigilant and Chester Men of War, and that Capt. Rouse in the Shirley Galley was out on a Cruize.

We have Advice from Newfoundland, that the French Men of War lately arrived there, had taken Capt. Adams in a Mast Ship from Piscataqua, bound to England.

[October 31, 1745]

Custom-House, Philadelphia, Entered ...


Brigt. Louisbourg, William Carter, to Jamaica. ...

[November 3, 1745]

... sickness in ye Kings Service at Lewisburg ...

[Source: Andover, MA Vital Records to 1850 [Deaths] Published by: The Topsfield Historical Society Topsfield, MA 1912 Transcribed by Frances LaMarco - Regarding ABBOT (see also Abbet, Abbett, Abbott), Isaac, s. Thomas and Hannah, - a. 28 y. 8 m. 21 d. ]

Boston, November 4.

Last Friday arrived Capt. Tufts in six Weeks from England, by whom we learn, That our Mast-ships and most of the other Vessels that sailed with them are arrived. That 11 Transports with Stores for Louisburg, and about 600 Soldiers for that Place and Annapolis Royal, lay ready to sail; and that 15 Transports were gone to Gibraltar to take on board a Regiment of Soldiers for Louisbourg. That a Squadron of his Majesty's Ships were cruizing on the Coast of Scotland, to prevent any Succours going to the Rebels. That his Excellency our Governor is appointed Colonel of one of the Regiments to be placed in the Garrison of Louisbourg on the British Establishment: That the Report we had of Admiral Rowley's taking the French Turkey Fleet, is without Foundation; but that most of the eminent Merchants in France are broke ...

[November 7, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred In...
-------- Endeavour, William Rice, from cape breton....
----- Indian King, Gilbert Albertson, from cape breton. ....
----- Sea Flower, Andrew Langworthy, from cape breton. ...

Entred Out....
-------- Elizabeth, John Shipman, for cape breton....

[November 14, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia Sloop, Entred ...

Cleared.... ----- Elizabeth, John Shipman, to cape breton. ...
----- Robert & Isabella, George Askin, to cape breton. ...
Schooner Sturdy Beggar, Joseph Herrick, to cape breton. ...

... Last Friday Evening an Express came in from the Westward, and brought the following Letter, dated Deerfield, Nov. 15, 1745.

... We have Advice by a Vessel which arrived last Week from Newfoundland, That the two French East India Ships taken last Summer near Louisbourg, and sent thither with several Men of War by Commodore Warren, were condemn'd with their Cargoes, at a Court of Admiralty held there the beginning of last Month, having been posted the Time limited for Persons concerned to make their Claims; and that they soon after sailed under Convoy of 4 or 5 Men of War, with a Number of other Vessels for England.

Boston, November 25.

About a Week ago a French Sloop with a Flag of Truce arrived at Tarpaulin Cove from Cape Francois. She has been out about five Weeks, is commanded by one Bournee, a Frenchman, and has brought about 30 English Prisoners, among whom is Capt. Clark, who was taken last September, in a new Ship bound from Piscataqua to Antigua: He came to Town last Wednesday, and informs, that the French were fitting out two Privateers at Cape Francois, which they gave out were to cruize to the Northward.

A Sloop is arrived at Plymouth from Newfoundland, which sailed from thence the 26th of last Month. We hear by this Sloop, that the English men of War, with the two East India Prizes, which lately sailed from Louisbourg, were at Newfoundland when she came away; and that a Court of Admiralty was appointed to be held there the third of November for the Trial of the said prizes.

[November 28, 1745]

Saturday next will be published, THE FRIENDLY INSTRUCTOR: Or, a Companion for Young Ladies and Young Gentlemen. In which their Duty to God, and their Parents, their Carriage to Superiors and Inferiors, and several other very useful and instructive Lessons are recommended, in Plain and Familiar Dialogues. With a Recommendatory Preface, by the Rev. Dr. DODDRIDGE. London Printed: Philadelphia Re-printed, and Sold by B. Franklin, in Market Street. Price Six pence. Where may be had. Mr. PRINCE's Sermon on the General Thanksgiving, occasioned by the taking of CAPE BRETON, in which is contain'd a more particular Account of the Expedition that hitherto has been published; to which is added, a new and exact Plan of the Town, Forts, and Harbour of Louisbourg. Price 1s.

... Extract of a Letter from Capt. Lewis Turner, to a Gentleman in this Town, dated London, November 29, 1745.

My last to you was from St. Kitts, of the 19th of July, which Day I sail'd from thence; since which I have had the Misfortune to be taken and carried into Brest. --- On the 12th of August, at 4 o'Clock in the Morning, I fell in with a Fleet of 5 French Men of War, in the Lat. of 43 D. 45 M. North, Long. 40 D. 30 M. West from London, bound for the Relief of Cape Breton; they at first consisted of seven Sail, but one had separated in bad Weather, the other being an extraordinary Sailor, was sent before to discover Mr. Warren's Strength, and whether the Place was taken, and then to join the Fleet on the Banks of Newfoundland. On the Coast she took the Prince of Orange Mast Ship, (Adams) with Governor Clark of New York and his Family on board;--- some of the Passengers gave them a particular Account of the Surrender of that great Place, otherwise in all Probability, we should have fallen into the Hands of Mr. Warren: The Fleet consisted of the Mars, 66 Guns, Commodore Pr. Solvert; the St. Michael, 62 Guns, Capt. Du Rashee; the Perfait, Capt. Du Vivier, 2d Capt. Mons. Delabrotz, Lieut. Mons. Man-Jean, of 46 Guns; the Arrogant, Capt. Tilley, 46 Guns, on board of which I was sent Prisoner; the Larnoma, of 32 Guns, which took Capt. Adams, and the Tourneor of 28 Guns; they were all loaded with Brass Cannon and other Warlike Stores for the defence of Louisburgh; but upon hearing of its being taken, it gives a great Damp to their Spirits, They then appointed a Place to rendezvous in, and in the Fog separated; the Commodore in the mars, with the St. Michael, and Larnoma, put away for France; but the Perfait, Arrogant and Tourneor, went into a Place called Petit-Maitre, on Newfoundland, in Lat. of 51 D. 5. M. North, where we lay 3 Weeks Watering, Wooding, and Post-topping the Ships, and then sail'd for Brest, and every one got in singly. --- I was at Brest 8 Days in Goal, from thence travell'd to Morlaix, 33 Miles, where there was a Vartel Ship, who brought 271 Prisoners to Plymouth, where I arrived the 31st of October. --- ...

Extract of a Letter from Louisbourg, Nov. 30, 1745.

"As to what you say concerning the Engineer of Nova Scotia, Mr. Bastide, and the Credit he has gain'd among you for the Part he acted in the Siege, I can assure you his Fame has little or no Foundation; for he arrived in Chappeaurouge Bay on the sixth of June, and after visiting the General, went on board the Ships, and did not see any of the Batteries till the ninth of June, when he went to the Grand Battery, and dined and tarry'd there till the next Day, and then went to the Light House Battery, where he ordered nothing but two or three of his Carpenters to assist in laying the Remainder of the Platforms there, and to fix a Flagstaff instead of one erected on the Top of the Light House before; and it being a wet Day, and no Firing on either Side, in his Return to the Camp he visited Tidcomb's Battery, and found two Platforms there weaken'd by the Exercise, which he ordered to be repair'd, and what had been advised several Times before he joined in it, which was the getting three 42 Pounders more from the Grand Battery to make it what it was originally designed, and had all the Merions and Embrasures prepared for, viz. a five Gun Battery; which would have been finished before, had not a certain Gentleman insisted upon its being of little or no Consequence. He then visited the other Batteries, without giving any Directions about them. When the Commander of the Train moved to have the thirteen Inch Mortar carried to the Lighthouse, Mr. Bastide approved of it; his Gunners assisted in driving some of the Fuses, and mending the 9 and 11 Inch Mortars, which by constant use were render'd almost unserviceable. Any thing more that he did or advised I don't remember, though I was in the Situation to know both what he did, and what he advised; neither can it be supposed he could do much from the ninth of June, the Day he began to look at Things, and the fifteenth of June, the Day the Flag of Truce came out to treat of Terms."

We hear that one of the Store Ships from London for Cape Breton is arrived at New York.

Boston, December 2.

By a Vessel to Piscataqua, that left Louisbourg 12 or 13 Days ago, we have Advice, that no Vessels were then arrived from England - that the Garrison was more healthy than formerly, and that his Excellency our Governor's Baggage was on board the Massachusetts Frigat, Capt. Tyng, but that it was not known when he would sail for this Port ...

New York, December 2.

... Friday, Capt. Hall in a Sloop from cape breton, coming in, not being able to get a Pilot, and seeing the Weather look bad, ventur'd up; but by the Time he had got as far as Gravesend, the Wind chopt about at N.W. and forced him ashore, and bulg'd the Sloop, which being only in Ballast, 'tis thought she will be lost.

Boston ...

[December 8, 1745]

.... December 12. On the 8th Instant in the Afternoon, to the great Joy of the town, after a Voyage of 11 Days, His Excellency Governor SHIRLEY; with his Lady, &c. arrived in Safety and in Health in our Harbour below Castle William, from Louisburgh, on board the Massachusetts Frigate, Capt. Tyng Commander. About 4 o'Clock His Excellency left the Ship, when he was saluted with 17 Guns, and soon after landed at the Castle, under a Discharge of 21 Cannon. His Excellency lodged at the Castle that Night; and abut Eleven o'Clock next Day, his Excellency set out from thence in the Castle Barge under the Discharge of the Cannon, for this Town, attended with the Lieutenant Governor, and some Officers of the Land Forces which came with him from Louisburgh, and landed at the end of the Long Wharff abut Twelve. In his Passage he was saluted by his Majesty's Frigate Shirley, the Massachusetts, and many other Vessels in the Harbour, and the two Battery of the Town: The Vessels which lay close to the Wharff and the Place where he landed, were crouded with People; and at his Landing he was received by his Majesty's Council, the Speaker of the House of Representatives and several principal Members of the House and the Justices, Gentlemen and Merchants of the Town, amidst the general Acclamations of the People. Upon this Occasion the Regiment of Militia in the Town of Boston (including the Foot Company in Chelsea) under the Command of the Honourable Col. Jacob Wendell, the Troop of Guards, with another Troop of the Regiment of Horse, under the Command of Col. Estes Hatch, and the Company of Cadets under the Command of Col. Benjamin Pollard, attended his Excellency, and paid the proper Salutes in King Street. The new Set of Bells, with all the other Bells of the Town, continued ringing the greatest Part of the Day. In the Evening a great Number of Houses in the Town were beautifully illuminated, great Variety of curious Firelocks displayed; and the Day was celebrated with the most general Tokens of Joy that could be express'd.

We hear that none of the Forces from great Britain were arrived at Louisburgh when his Excellency left it, but that the Garrison was in pretty good Health, very easy, and well supply'd with all Necessaries. ...

[December 10, 1745]

Just Published, THE FRIENDLY INSTRUCTOR:Or, a Companion for Young Ladies and Young Gentlemen. In which their Duty to God, and their Parents, their Carriage to Superiors and Inferiors, and several other very useful and instructive Lessons are recommended, in Plain and Familiar Dialogues. With a Recommendatory Preface, by the Rev. Dr. DODDRIDGE. London Printed: Philadelphia Re-printed, and Sold by B. Franklin, in
Market Street. Price Six pence. Where may be had, Mr. PRINCE's Sermon on the General Thanksgiving, occasioned by the taking of CAPE BRETON; in which is contain'd a more particular Account of the Expedition, than hitherto has been published; to which is added, a new and exact Plan of the Town, Forts, and Harbour of Louisbourg. Price 1s.

Philadelphia, December 10.

The following is an Account of the Money and other Cargo found on board the South Sea Ship, called Notre Dame de la Deliverance, carried into Louisbourg soon after the Acquisition of that Place.

14840 Double Doublons at 66s. Ster. each £.        48972:   0:   0
1,320,500 Dollars, at 4s. 9d.                               313618:   15:   0
786 Ounces of Gold, at 72s per Ounce                  2829:   12:   0
283 Pound, 3 oz. or 4532 oz. Silver, at 5s. oz         1132:   2:    0
                                                                           £. 367553:  2:    0
18 Large gold Snuff boxes, Gold Headed Sword, 1 Crucifix and Chain, a small Box containing rough Diamonds, 876 Serons, and 316 Bags of Cocoa, 195 Serons of Jesuits Bark, and 36 Bales of fine red Wool; the Value of the whole amounting to above £. 4000,000 Sterling.

[December 15, 1745]

... sickness in the Kings Service at Lewisburg ...

Source: Andover, MA Vital Records to 1850 [Deaths] Published by: The Topsfield Historical Society Topsfield, MA 1912 Transcribed by Frances LaMarco - Regarding ALLIN (see also Allen), Andrew - ]

[December 16, 1745]

... December 16. By Capt. Tyng from Louisburgh we hear, That the Honourable Admiral Warren, and other Gentlemen there, had generously given near Thirteen Hundred Pieces of Eight, for the Relief of the necessitous Widows and Children of those brave Men who were lost in the Province Show Prince of Orange, Capt. Smethurst, in the Expedition against cape breton, which Capt. Tyng has brought hither with him to be distributed accordingly; of which we are well inform'd the Admiral and his Lady gave 500 each. A noble Instance of their Benevolence, and a Charity of the best Sort.

[December 17, 1745]

Custom House, Philadelphia, Entred ...
Brigt. Industry, John Green, from cape breton. ...


Extract of a Letter from St. Christophers, Dec. 22.

"We have News here, that General Wade has drove the Rebels into the Highlands, and that the Rebellion is thought to be as good as over. 'Tis reported that the King of Prussia has made Peace with the Emperor, and of Consequence with the Queen of Hungary; and that the French King has called him his Minister from the Hague, and has, or will soon declare War against the Dutch." 'Tis hoped this News will prove true. 

We are informed that the Raleigh Privateer, Captain Millar, of Virginia, has taken, and carried into St. Christophers, a French Sloop, valued at about 1500 £.

We hear from Barbados, that Admiral Townsend is arrived there with some of the Men of War, and two of the French Prizes, and that four more were daily expected; that he has sent 8 to Antigua, two to St. Christophers, and 1 to Montserrat; and that he has left some of his Ships to cruize off of Martineco.

By a Letter from Kingston, in Jamaica, we learn, that Capt. Stevens, in a Sloop of this Place, for that Island, his Mate, and another Man, were murdered by a French Molattoe they had on board, in the following barbarous Manner, viz. The Captain having laid down in the Roundhouse, and the Mate and other Man sleeping forward, this Fellow, being at Helm, went, unobserved, and cut the Mate's Throat; who making some Struggle, and endeavouring to get up, was chopped down with a Hatchet the Molattoe had concealed under his Clothes, and with which he likewise killed the other Man; upon which, a Boy that belonged to the Vessel screamed out, which waked the Captain, who came immediately to know the Occasion of the Noise; but the Fellow met him before he could well see, and cut him down also with the Hatchet. This done, he threw the Mate and other Man over board, ran the Sloop ashore, and went into the Woods, taking the Boy with him. Soon after some People in a Canoe going along Shore, and seeing the Vessel with her Sails fluttering, had the Curiosity to go on board, where they found the Captain just expiring. The Molattoe observing the People in the Vessel, call'd to them, told them it was he had committed the Murder, and that he would come on board, if they would use him well, which they promised. Accordingly he came on board, and being asked the reason of his murdering the People, he answered, That he had been taken, carried into Philadelphia, and there sold for a Slave, and that he had done this to get his Liberty; upon which they confined him, got the Sloop off, carried her into Leoganne, and delivered him up; where being examined, and answering as above, he was cleared. This Account was given at Kingston by the Boy that belonged to the Sloop, and several other Persons, who came there in a Flag of Truce from Hispaniola ...

New York, December 23.

Thursday last arrived here Captain Barnes from South Carolina, in whom came Passengers several Persons who had just arrived there in a Flag of Truce from the Havanna, amongst whom is Captain Collet, late of the Brigantine Catherine of this Port, bound hither from Jamaica, who was taken the 30th of October last, 30 Days after he came out, off the Bay of Hondoa, by two Spanish Men of War, one of 70, the other of 58 Guns, and carried into the Havanna, where he remained Prisoner about 20 Days: The same Men of War also took, about the same time, six other Vessels from Jamaica, one of which was the Tartar, Captain Twaits, a rich Ship, bound hither; two others bound to Bristol, one to Lancaster, and the Experiment Mast-Ship, and another Ship bound to London.

While Captain Collet was at the Havanna, fifteen Sail of Spanish Merchantmen sail'd from thence for Old Spain, under Convoy of two French Men of War of 36 Guns each.

We are assured, there are Letters in Town from some Settlements above the Forks of Delaware, which give Information, that they had an Account there from some Friend Indians, that the French and their Indians were actually preparing to make an Invasion on the English.

Saturday last, at a Court of Admiralty held in this City, the two large Ships brought in here about five Months ago, by the Lincoln and Triton Privateers, were, after many long Examinations and fair Hearings, condemned as lawful Prize. The above Ships are to be sold at publick Vendue, in about three Weeks from this Day, and are between 3 and 400 Tons Burthen each, well found.

By a Vessel which arrived here last Night from Rhode Island, we hear, that his Excellency Governor Shirley was arrived at Boston from Louisbourg, but that no Transports with Soldiers were yet arrived at Louisbourg from Europe.

Boston, December 30.

Last Tuesday Evening Capt. Hunter in the Brigantine Boston Packet, sailed for Louisburg, with about 80 Recruits, and Bedding, fresh provisions, &c. for that Garrison; but having by Midnight got about six Leagues beyond Cape Ann, he met with a most violent Storm at N. or N.E. which obliged him to put back, and endeavouring to get into Salem, narrowly escaped being lost on the Misery. He cut away his Masts, which was the saving of the Vessel, and near One Hundred Persons Lives, and on Wednesday the Vessel was towed into Marblehead. One of the Soldiers perished with the Cold, and several of the Seamen had their Fingers froze. The said Brigantine arrived here last Saturday, being towed up by two Schooners, and will be refitted with the utmost Expedition.

In the same Storm a Sloop from the Eastward with Lumber was overset in the Bay, but the Men were happily saved by a Schooner in Company, which took the Sloop in Tow for some Time, but the Storm increasing, they were obliged to let her go adrift again.